• Česlovas Christauskas Kaunas University of Applied Sciences (LT)
  • Rasa Žilionė Innovation Office (LT)



empowerment, entrepreneurship, ethnic minority, social enterprise, women


The empowerment of women and the improvement of their political, social, economic and health status is a highly important and is one of the Global Sustainable Goals. Gender Equality index 2020 of EU-28 is 67.9, slowly increasing (European Institute for Gender Equality, 2021). Although there are some researches related to women empowerment and economic development (Siba, 2019, Hemalatha, 2020, Doss, Malapit, & Comstock, 2020, etc.) or social entrepreneurship (Biggeri, Testi, Bellucci, During, & Persson, 2018; Briar-Lawson, Miesing, & Ram, 2020, etc.), combining these two fields and especially adding women from ethnic minority is very rare in scientific researches.

The aim of the paper is to highlight challenges and possibilities of social entrepreneurship for empowerment of women from ethnic minority.

This paper is based on Erasmus+ project “Empowering Women from Ethnic Minorities Through Social Enterprises” (abbrev. EMwoSE) analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data retrieved in Ireland, United Kingdom, Germany, Greece, Italy, Lithuania and Turkey. International data gives to the paper additional value in picturing the bigger picture of the situation in European countries.

However, women starting a social enterprise is itself contributing to women’s empowerment, assuming that social enterprise can be culturally more acceptable for women from ethnic minorities.


Download data is not yet available.


Biggeri, M., Testi, E., Bellucci, M., During, R., H. & Persson, Th. R. (2018). Social Entrepreneurship and Social Innovation: Ecosystems for Inclusion in Europe. Routledge.

Briar-Lawson, K., Miesing, P., & Ramos, B. M. (2020). Social Entrepreneurship and Enterprises in Economic and Social Development. Oxford University Press.

Doss, C., Malapit, H. J., & Comstock, A. (2020). Methods for measuring women's empowerment. PIM Synthesis Brief.

EMWOSE. (2020). Empowering Women From Ethnic Minorities Through Social Enterprise: State of the Art Report. Retrieved from

European Commission. (2021). Women's situation in the labour market. Retrieved from

European Institute for Gender Equality. (2021). Gender Equality Index. Retrieved from

European Parliament. (2020). REPORT on the EU Strategy for Gender Equality (2019/2169(INI)). Retrieved from

Hemalatha, M. (2020). Women Empowerment And Tourism Industry. International Journal Of Multidisciplinary Educational Research, 9, 1(2), 219-224.

Mandal, K. C. (2013). Concept and Types of Women Empowerment. International Forum of Teaching and Studies, 9, 2, 17-30.

Petesch, P., Smulovitz, C., & Walton, M. (2005). Evaluating Empowerment: A Framework with Cases from Latin America. Measuring Empowerment: Cross-Disciplinary Perspectives. Ed. Narayan D. ISBN 0-8213-6057-4

Siba, E. (2019). Empowering women entrepreneurs in developing countries: Why current programs fall short. Africa Growth Initiative at Brookings. Policy Brief. Retrieved from

United Nations. (2015). Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 25 September 2015. Retrieved from

United Nations. (2019). International Migration 2019: Report (ST/ESA/SER.A/438). Retrieved from




How to Cite

Christauskas, Česlovas, & Žilionė, R. (2021). SOCIAL ENTERPRISE FOR EMPOWERMENT OF WOMEN FROM ETHNIC MINORITY: CHALLENGES AND POSSIBILITIES. SOCIETY. INTEGRATION. EDUCATION. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference, 4, 57-66.