• Kristīne Mackare Liepaja University, Faculty of Science and Engineering (LV)
  • Anita Jansone Liepaja University, Faculty of Science and Engineering (LV)




e-learning, e-materials, e-study, formatting app, myopia, public health


E-learning has a direct relationship with public health as e-materials are making a huge amount of near workload for e-learners' eyes. As it is known, the huge near workload is one of the main reasons for the myopia development of nowadays population. The visual system can quickly become overloaded, especially by inappropriate e-material formatting. Based on theoretical research, incorrect formatting is used in most e-materials based on wrong recommendations. Recommendations and methodologies are not up-to-date for screen use. According to publications in the period of more than 20 years, near work and accommodation are the key factors for myopia development and progression. Appropriate formatting parameters of e-materials play an important role in reducing possible risk factors for myopia development. It could be achieved by using appropriate formatting parameters for e-learners. E-material font type must be perceptible and comprehensible from the screen, font size and line spacing must be appropriate for the reader based at least on its age and intellectual level, colour of background and text must help perception and reading process and could be different for each individual. All variables are important for individual and public health goals.  New recommendations and automatization of the formatting process are developed to reach improvement.



Download data is not yet available.


Detels, R., Beaglehole, R., Lansang, M.A., & Gulliford, M. (2009). Oxford Textbook of Public Health (5 ed.), Oxford University Press.

Dirani, M., Crowston, J.G., & Wong, T.Y. (2018). From reading books to increased smart device screen time, Br J Ophthalmol;0:1–2. DOI:10.1136/bjophthalmol-2018-313295

Guan, H., Yu, N.N., Wang, H., Boswell, M., Shi, Y., Rozelle, S., & Congdon, N. (2019). Impact of various types of near work and time spent outdoors at different times of day on visual acuity and refractive error among Chinese school-going children, PLoS One.; 14(4): e0215827. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215827

Kokab, S., & Khan, M.I. (2012). Computer vision syndrome: a short review, Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences, 1(6):1223-1226. DOI: 10.14260/jemds/199

Mackare, K., & Jansone, A. (2017a). Research of guidelines for designing e-study materials ETR17, Proceedings of the 11th International Scientific and Practical Conference Environment, Technology, Resources, June 15-17, Rezekne, Latvia, Volume 2, 90-96.

Mackare, K., & Jansone, A. (2017b). Recommended formatting parameters for e-study materials, Conference proceeding book of the 3rd International Conference on Lifelong Education and Leadership for All; SEP 12-14; Porto, Portugal, 514-522

Mackare, K., & Jansone, A. (2018). Recommended formatting parameters for e-study materials IJLEL Journal, 4, 1, 8-14.

Mackare, K., Jansone, A., & Zigunovs, M. (2018). E-material creating and formatting application, Book series: Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing 876, Human Systems Engineering and Design: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Human Systems Engineering and Design (IHSED2018): Future Trends and Applications, October 25-27, 2018, Reims, France, 135-140.

Mackare, K., & Jansone, A. (2019a). The concept for e-material creating and formatting application prototype, PEN, Periodicals of Engineering and Natural Sciences 7(1), 197-204.

Mackare, K., & Jansone, A. (2019b). Personalized learning: effective e-material formatting for users without disability or specific limitation, Educational Alternatives, 17, 194-206.

Mackare, K., Jansone, A., & Konarevs, I. (2019). The prototype version for e-material creating and formatting application, BJMC journal, 7, 3, 383-392

Maxwell, N. (2007). From Facebook to Folsom Prison Blues: How Banning Laptops in the Classroom Made Me a Better Law School Teacher, Richmond Journal of Law & Technology no. XIV(2).

Muhamedagic, L., Muhamedagic, B., Halilovic, E.A., Halimic, J.A., Stankovic, A., & Muracevic, B. (2014). Relation Between Near Work and Myopia Progression in Student Population, Mater Sociomed. Apr; 26(2), 100–103. DOI: 10.5455/msm.2014.26.100-103

Murray, K.E. (2011). Let Them Use Laptops: Debunking the Assumptions Underlying the Debate Over Laptops in the Classroom. Oklahoma City University Law Review no. 36.

Ramamurthy, M. & Lakshminarayanan, V., (2015). Human Vision and Perception, Handbook of Advanced Lighting Technology, Springer

Seok, S., & DaCosta, B. (2016). Perceptions and Preferences of Digital and Printed Text and Their Role in Predicting Digital Literacy, Asian Social Science 12(5), 14-23.




How to Cite

Mackare, K., & Jansone, A. (2020). E-LEARNING: APPROPRIATE E-MATERIALS FORMATTING FOR USERS HEALTH. SOCIETY. INTEGRATION. EDUCATION. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference, 4, 508-515. https://doi.org/10.17770/sie2020vol4.4889