• Lenka Sokolová Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Education, Department of psychology and pathopsychology (SK)
  • Viera Andreánska Comenius University in Bratislava, Faculty of Education, Department of psychology and pathopsychology (SK)



ambiguity tolerance, competence, diversity, pre-service teachers, specific educational needs


Teachers encounter many ambiguous situations in their every-day practice. They have to deal with pupils with various disabilities, personality and background diversity. The aim of this study is to examine pre-service teachers' ambiguity tolerance and perceived knowledge and skills for work with various types of diversity in the classroom. Pre-service teachers (N = 176) self-assessed their knowledge and teaching skills for 20 different types of children with special educational and social needs. The Multiple Stimulus Types Ambiguity Tolerance Scale-II was used to assess their ambiguity tolerance. Pre-service teachers' ambiguity tolerance appeared to be moderate. There was no significant difference across years of study and only weak or slight relationship between ambiguity tolerance and self-reported inclusive competences.


Download data is not yet available.


Arquero, J. L., & McLain, D. L. (2010). Preliminary validation of the Spanish version of the Multiple Stimulus Types Ambiguity Tolerance Scale (MSTAT-II). Spanish Journal of Psychology, 13(1), 476-84. DOI

Arquero, J. L., & Tejero, C. (2009). Ambiguity tolerance levels in Spanish accounting students: a comparative study. Revista de Contabilidad - Spanish Accounting Review, 12(1), 95-116.

Arquero, J. L., Fernández-Polvillo, C., Hassall, T., & Joyce, J. (2017). Relationships between communication apprehension, ambiguity tolerance and learning styles in accounting students. Revista de Contabilidad – Spanish Accounting Review, 20(1), 13–24. DOI

Brighetti, G. & Lucarelli, C. (2014). Gender differences in attitudes towards risk and ambiguity: when psycho–physiological measurements contradict sex–based stereotypes. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Small Business, 24(1). DOI

DeRoma, V. M., Martin, K. M., & Kessler, M. L. (2003). The Relationship between Tolerance for Ambiguity and Need for Course Structure. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 30(2), 104-109.

Dewaele, J. M., & Li, W. (2013). Is multilingualism linked to a higher tolerance of ambiguity? Bilingualism, 16(1), 231-240. DOI

Durrheim, K., & Foster, D. (1997). Tolerance of ambiguity as a content specific construct. Personality and Individual Differences, 22(5), 741-750.

Fontana, D. (2014). Psychologie ve školní praxi (Příručka pro učitele) [Psychology for teachers - teacher's guide]. Praha: Portál.

Friedland, N., Keinan, N., & Tytiun, T. (1999). The effect of psychological stress and tolerance of ambiguity on stereotypic attributions. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 12(4), 397-410. DOI:

Geller, G., Faden, R. R., & Levine, D. M. (1990). Tolerance for ambiguity among medical students: Implications for their selection, training and practice. Social Science & Medicine, 31(5), 619-624. DOI

Kajs, L. T., & McCollum, D. L. (2009). Examining tolerance for ambiguity in the domain of educational leadership. Academy of Educational Leadership Journal, 13(2), 1-16.

Kuhn, G., Goldberg, R., & Compton, S. (2009). Tolerance for uncertainty, burnout, and satisfaction with the career of emergency medicine. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 54(1), 106-113. DOI

Lemešová, M. (2013). Sociálno-psychologický výcvik ako súčasť pregraduálnej prípravy učiteľov a učiteliek [Social-psychological training as a part of pre-gradual teacher training] In Sapere Aude 2013: Pozitivní vzdělávání a psychologie 3. Hradec Králové: Magnanimitas. pp. 474-481.

Liu, Ch. (2015). Relevant Researches on Tolerance of Ambiguity. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 5(9), 1874-1882. DOI

Lojová, G., & Vlčková, K. (2011). Styly a strategie učení ve výuce cizích jazyků. [Styles and strategies in the teaching of foreign languages] Praha: Portál.

McLain, D. L. (2009). Evidence of the properties of an ambiguity tolerance measure: the Multiple Stimulus Types Ambiguity Tolerance Scale-II (MSTAT-II). Psychological Reports, 105(3), 975-88. DOI

Nicotera, A. M., Smilowitz, M., & Pearson, J. C. (1990). Ambiguity tolerance, conflict management style and argumentativeness as predictors of innovativeness. Communication Research Reports, 7(2), 125-131. DOI

Rittschof, K. N. (2016). Improving measurement of ambiguity tolerance among teacher candidates. Georgia Educational Research Association Conference. 25. Retrieved from:

Sokolová, L. (2018). Lepšie raz vidieť... Video v psychologickej príprave učiteľov a učiteliek. [It is better to see… Video in the psychology education for teachers] Bratislava: Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave.

Sokolová, L., & Andreánska, V. (2018). Diverzita v školskej triede očami budúcich učiteľov a učiteliek [Diversity in the classroom through pre-service teachers' eyes]. Psychológia a patopsychológia dieťaťa, 3-4.

Sokolová, L., Lemešová, M., & Jursová Zacharová, Z. (2014). Psychologická príprava učiteľov a učiteliek: Inovatívne prístupy [Psychology education for teachers: Innovative approaches]. Bratislava: Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave.

Stoycheva, K. (2010). Tolerance for ambiguity, creativity, and personality. Bulgarian Journal of Psychology, 1-4, 178-188.

Tegano, D. W. (1990). Relationship of tolerance of ambiguity and playfulness to creativity. Psychological Reports, 66, 1047-1056.

Tymula, A., Rosenberg Belmaker, L. A., Roy, A. K., Ruderman, L., Manson, K., Glimcher, P. W., & Levy, I. (2012). Adolescents’ risk-taking behavior is driven by tolerance to ambiguity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(42), 17135–17140. DOI

Valutis, S. A. (2015). The Relationship between Tolerance of Ambiguity and Stereotyping: Implications for BSW Education. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 35(5), 513-528. DOI:

Weissenstein, A., Ligges, S., Brouwer, B., Marschall, B., & Friederichs, H. (2014). Measuring the ambiguity tolerance of medical students: a cross-sectional study from the first to sixth academic. BioMedCentral Family Practice, 15(6). DOI

Xu, H., & Tracey, T. J. G. (2014). The role of ambiguity tolerance in career decision making. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 85, 18–26. DOI

Yee, L. M., Liu, L. Y., & Grobman, W. A. (2014). The relationship between obstetricians’ cognitive and affective traits and their patients’ delivery outcomes. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 692, 1-6. DOI

Zhang, Q. Z. (2004). Effects of tolerance of ambiguity on the selection of language learning strategies. Foreign Language Teaching and Research, 36(6), 457-461.




How to Cite

Sokolová, L., & Andreánska, V. (2019). PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS’ AMBIGUITY TOLERANCE. SOCIETY. INTEGRATION. EDUCATION. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference, 2, 610-618.