STUDY OF ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE USE OF MOBILE PHONES WHILE DRIVING WITH IMPLICIT ASSOCIATION TESTS AND SELF-ASSESSMENT PROCEDURES
Keywords:Attitudes towards driving, drivers, explicit, implicit measurements, personality factors
AbstractAnalysis of studies shows that in studying attitudes towards risky and safe driving only few researches are based on the use of implicit methods. The aim of the study: the study of attitudes towards the use of mobile phones while driving with the use of Implicit Association Tests and self-assessment procedures. Participants: 69, age 21-59, M = 42, SD = 9.02, 27 female and 42 male, all with B category driver licenses, driving experience 9-24 years. Implicit measurements: two experimental procedures of the Implicit Association Test (IAT) developed by the authors for measuring attitudes towards the use of mobile phones while driving: IAT and self-concept IAT Explicit measurements: a self-assessment procedure developed by the authors "Scale of measuring attitudes towards the use of mobile phones while driving," cross-cultural Personality Questionnaire ZKPQ-50-CC (Aluja, Rossier, García, Angleitner, Kuhlman, & Zuckerman, 2006). A positive relationship between the results of measurements using IAT and self-concept IAT was found in participants with high anxiety. The effect size obtained with the IAT is larger than the effect size obtained with self-concept IAT. A relationship between the results of measurement of attitudes towards the use a mobile phone while driving, measured by experimental procedures and the personal factors was found.
Aluja, A., Rossier, J., Garcıa, L.F., Angleitner, A., Kuhlman, M. & Zuckerman, M. (2006). A cross-cultural shortened form of the ZKPQ (ZKPQ-50-cc) adapted to English, French, German, and Spanish languages. Personality and Individual Differences, 41, 619–628.
Amado, S., & Ulupinar, P. (2005). The effects of conversation on attention and peripheral detection: Is talking with a passenger and talking on the cell phone different? Transportation Research Part F, 8, 383–395. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2005.05.001.
American Psychological Association (2009). APA concise dictionary of psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Bener, A., Lajunen, T., Ozkan, T., & Haigney, D. (2006). The effect of mobile phone use on driving style and driving skills. IJC Crash, 11(5), 459–465. Retrieved from
Bener, A., Crundall, D., }Ozkan, T., & Lajunen, T. (2010). Mobile phone use while driving: A major public health problem in an Arabian society, State of Qatarmobile phone use and the risk of motor vehicle crashes. Journal Public Health, 18, 123–129. Retrieved from
Ellis, P.D. (2010). The essential guide to effect sizes. Statistical power, meta-analysis, and the interpretation of research results. Cambridge: University Press.
Fazio, R. H., Chen, J., McDonel, E. C., & Sher-man, S. J. (1982). Attitude accessibility, atti-tude-behavior consistency and the strength of the object-evaluation association. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 18, 339-357.
Fazio, R.H. (1995). Attitudes as object-evaluation associations: Determinants, consequences, and correlates of attitude accessibility. In R.E. Petty & J.A. Krosnick (Eds.), Attitude strength: Antecedents and consequences (pp. 247-288). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Fernandes, R. F., Hatfield, J., & Job, R. F. S. (2006). Examination of different predictors of different risky driving behaviours in young NSW drivers. Final report for the Motor Accidents Authority of NSW, Australia. Retrieved from http://www.irmrc.unsw.edu.au/documents/predictors%20of%20risky% 20drving%20report.pdf.
Field, A. (2009). Discovering statistics using SPSS (3rd Edition). Washington DC: Sage. Available at http://fac.ksu.edu.sa/sites/default/files/ktb_lktrwny_shml_fy_lhs.pdf.
Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological Review, 102, 4–27. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.102.1.4.
Greenwald, A. G., McGhee, D. E., & Schwartz, J. L. K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: The Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 1464-1480.
Greenwald, A. G., & Farnham, S. D. (2000). Using the Implicit Association Test to measure self-esteem and self-concept. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 1022–1038.
Hatfield, J., Fernandes, R., Faunce, G., & Job, R.F.S. (2008). An implicit non-self-report measure of attitudes to speeding: Development and validation, Accident Analysis and Prevention, vol. 40, pp. 616 – 627 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2007.08.020.
Jacoby, L.L. and M. Dallas (1981), "On the Relationship between Autobiographical Memory and Perceptual Learning," Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 110, 306-340.
Klauer, K.C., Voss, A., & Stahl, C. (2011). Cognitive methods in social psychology. New York: Guilford Press.
Lamble, D., Rajalin, S., & Summala, H. (2002). Mobile phone use while driving: public opinions on restrictions. Transportation, 29(3), 223–236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1015698129964. Retrieved from
Lipovac K, Đerić M, Tešić M, Andrić Z, & Maric B., (2017). Mobile phone use while driving-literary review. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour. 47, 132-142. 10.1016/j.trf.2017.04.015.
Martinussen, L.M., Sømhovd, M.J., Møller, M., & Siebler, F. (2015). A go/no-go approach to uncovering implicit attitudes towards safe and risky driving. Transportation Research Part F, 30, 74-83.
Nemme, H. E., & White, K. M. (2010). Texting while driving: Psychosocial influences on young people’s texting intentions and behaviour. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 42, 1257–1265. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2010.01.019.
McEvoy, S. P., Stevenson, M. R., & Woodward, M. (2006). Phone use and crashes while driving: A representative survey of drivers in two Australian states. The Medical Journal of Australia, 185, 630–634 <https://www.mja.com.au/system/files/issues/185_11_041206/mce10252_fm.pdf>.
Olson, M. A., & Kendrick, R. V. (2008). Origins of attitudes. In W. Crano & R. Prislin (Eds.), Attitudes and Persuasion. New York: Psychology Press.
Patten, C. J. D., Kircher, A., Östlund, J., & Nilsson, L. (2004). Using mobile telephones: Cognitive workload and attention resource allocation. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 36, 341–350. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0001-4575(03)00014-9.
Petty, R.E., Fazio, R.H. & Briñol P. (2009). Attitudes: Insights from the new wave of implicit measures (85-117). In B. Gawronski, F. Strack, & G.V. Bodenhausen, Attitudes and cognitive consistency: the role associative and propositional processes. New York: Psychology Press.
Plotka, I., Igonin, D., & Blumenau, N. (2016). Implicit Attitudes and Measurements: Effect of Context. International Business: Innovations, Psychology and Economics, 7(2(12)), 7-150. Retrieved from http://www.kuryba.lt/failai/zurnalai/2016_2.pdf.
Posner, M. I., & Snyder, C. R. (1975). Attention and cognitive control. In R. L. Solso (Ed.), Information processing and cognition: The Loyola symposium. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Ronggang, Z., Changxu, W., Rau, P. L. P., & Zhang, W. (2009). Young driver’s learners intention to use a hand-held or hands-free mobile phone when driving. Transportation Research Part F, 12, 208–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2008.11.003.
Ronggang, Z., Rau, P. L. P., Zhang, W., & Zhuang, D. (2012). Mobile phone use while driving: Predicting drivers answering intentions and compensatory decisions. Safety Science, 50, 138–149. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2011.07.013.
Rudman, L. A. (2011). Implicit measures for social and personality psychology. London: Sage.
Schacter, D.L. (1987). Implicit memory: History and current status. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 13, 501-518.
Shiffrin, R. M., & Schneider, W. (1977). Controlled and automatic human information processing: II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending and a general theory. Psychological Review, 84(2), 127-190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.127
Treffner, P. J., & Barrett, R. (2004). Hands-free mobile phone speech while driving degrades coordination and control. Transportation Research Part F, 229–246. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2004.09.002.
Violanti, J. M., & Marshall, J. R. (1996). Cellular phones and traffic accidents: An epidemiological approach. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 28(2), 265–270. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0001-4575(95)00070-4.
Violanti, J. M. (1999). Cellular phones and fatal traffic collisions. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 30(4), 519–524. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0001-4575(97)00094-8
White, K. M., Hyde, M. K., Walsh, S. P., & Watson, B. (2010). Mobile phone use while driving: An investigation of the beliefs influencing drivers hands-free and hand-held mobile phone use. Transportation Research, Part F, 13, 9–20.
Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trf.2009.09.004.
Yannis, G., Theofilatos A., & Marinou, P. (2015). Attitudes of Greek Drivers with Focus on Mobile Phone Use While Driving, Traffic Injury Prevention, 16(8), 831-834. DOI: 10.1080/15389588.2015.1030737.
Zuckerman, M. (2002). "Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ): an alternative five-factorial model". In B. de Raad & M. Perugini (Eds), Big Five Assessment (pp. 377–396). Hogrefe & Huber Publishers.