Elina Apsite-Berina, Juris Paiders, Aleksandrs Dahs, Maris Berzins


This paper discusses the spatial extent of population change and provides new insights into the relationships between demographic characteristics and the provision of education services in urban neighbourhoods of Riga. Thus, our empirical evidence confirms that the provision of social infrastructure is fundamentally dependent on the nature of demographic processes. The aim of this paper is twofold: to explore the spatial extent of changes in the number of pre-school and school-aged children in Riga, and to assess how the demographic change of particular age cohorts are associated with the provision of educational establishments at the neighbourhood level. Using available statistics and based on calculations, this article reveals how the interplay between demographic and education related characteristics could be used in the analysis of particular age groups. The main findings show that educational institutions in capital city are distributed unevenly. Similarly, there is a great variety in demographic development between the urban neighbourhoods of Riga. Thus, unmatched demand for educational facilities or lacking specific types of institutions altogether create additional load in the neighbourhoods of inner-city, while increasing daily mobility of children and their parents.



demography; educational statistics; population forecast; Riga, school network; urban neighbourhoods

Full Text:



Central statistics bureau of Latvia (CSB). (2020). Database tables RIG010 & RIG050. Retrieved from:

Bērziņš, A. (2019). Iedzīvotāju sastāva novecošana. Krūmiņš, J., Krišjāne, Z. ( Tautas ataudze Latvijā un sabiedrības atjaunošanas izaicinājumi. LU Akadēmiskais apgāds, Rīga.

Booth, H. (2006). Demographic forecasting: 1980 to 2005 in review. International journal of forecasting, 22(3), 547-581.

Eglīte, P., Ivbulis, B., & Gņedovska I. (2012) Demogrāfiskās prognozes Rīgā un Pierīgā. Retrieved from:

Fihel, A., & Okólski, M. (2019). Demographic change and challenge. In Gorzelak, G. (Ed.). Social and Economic Development in Central and Eastern Europe: Stability and Change after 1990. Routledge, London and New York, 124-158.

Kabisch, N., & Haase, D. (2011). Diversifying European agglomerations: evidence of urban population trends for the 21st century. Population, space and place, 17 (3), 236-253.

Krūmiņš, J., & Krišjāne, Z. (2016). Demogrāfiskā attīstība Latvijā: problēmas un izaicinājumi. Latvijas Zinātņu Akadēmijas Vēstis "A" daļa, 70 (3), 40-50.

Krūmiņš, J., & Bērziņš, A. (2019). Demogrāfiskās attīstības vērtējumi un prognozes. Krūmiņš, J., Krišjāne, Z. ( Tautas ataudze Latvijā un sabiedrības atjaunošanas izaicinājumi. LU Akadēmiskais apgāds, Rīga.

Krumins, Juris, et al. (2017). Demographic implications of the recent regional and cohesion policy developments in Latvia. New Challenges of Economic and Business Development–2017 Digital Economy, 288.

Langford, M., Higgs, G., & Dallimore, D. J. (2019). Investigating spatial variations in access to childcare provision using network‐based Geographic Information System models. Social Policy & Administration, 53 (5), 661-677.

Mayaud, J. R., Tran, M., Pereira, R. H., & Nuttall, R. (2019). Future access to essential services in a growing smart city: The case of Surrey, British Columbia. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 73, 1-15.

Rīgas domes Izglītības, kultūras un sporta departaments (RD IKSD), 2020. Iestāžu katalogs. Retrieved from:

Rīgas domes Pilsētas attīstības departaments (RDPAD) 2020, projekts “Rīgas apkaimes”. Retrieved from:

Rivza, B., & Jermolajeva, E. (2018). Beyond a century. The smart Latvia. The national research programme EKOSOC-LV “Economic transformation, smart growth, governance and legal framework for the state and society for sustainable development-a new approach to the creation of a sustainable learning community”. Riga, Latvian Academy of Sciences, 416.

Terama, E., Clarke, E., Rounsevell, M. D., Fronzek, S., & Carter, T. R. (2019). Modelling population structure in the context of urban land use change in Europe. Regional environmental change, 19 (3), 667-677.

Vihalemm, P., Masso, A. & Opermann, S. (Eds.). (2017). The Routledge International Handbook of European Social Transformations. Routledge.

Weishaupt, H. (2016). How Demographic Change Affects Education? HERJ Hungarian Educational Research Journal, 6(3), 84-94.

Wilson, T. & Rees, P. (2005). Recent developments in population projection methodology: A review. Population, Space and Place, 11 (5), 337-360.



  • There are currently no refbacks.