Lilia Žukauskienė, Rasa Skališienė


The article presents the results of the qualitative research which provide a deeper understanding of the factors determining vulnerability on online social networks among teenage girls attending a Child Day Care Centre. The research has involved the specialists from Child Day Care Centres of different towns and districts of Lithuania. A version of a systematic grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1990) has been applied to conduct the research; it has helped to construct the phenomenon – Insight into threats on online social networks: “One step and everything can end up badly”. By applying the paradigmatic model of “cause and effect” of the systematic grounded theory, reasons for the development of this phenomenon, contextual and intervening factors, strategies of actions/interactions applied by the specialists as well as the manifested consequences have been distinguished.


Child Day Care Centre; online social networks; teenage girls; vulnerability

Full Text:



Amsteus, M. N. (2014). The Validity of Divergent Grounded Theory Method. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 13, 71–87.

Atkins, L. & Wallace, S. (2012). Qualitative Research in Education. London: Sage Publications.

Catalogue of Social Services of the Republic of Lithuania (2006). Valstybės žinios, Nr. 17-589. Downloaded from http://www.socmin.lt/index/php-2103340925

Corbin, J. & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of Qualitative Research. Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory. California: Sage Publications.

Doornwaard, S. M, Bogt, M, Reitz, E. & van den Eijnden, R. (2015). Sex-Related Online Behaviors, Perceived Peer Norms and Adolescents’ Experience with Sexual Behavior: Testing an Integrative Model. PLoS ONE 10(6), 47 – 59.

Dowdell, E. B. & Bradley, P. K. (2010). Risky internet behaviours: a case study of online and offline stalking. The Journal of school nursing, 26(6), 432 – 443.

Campbell, W. K. & Twenge, J. M. (2015). The narcissism epidemic: Living in the age of entitlement. New York: Free Press.

Gamez-Guadix, M., Borrajo, E. & Almendros, C. (2016). Risky online behaviours among adolescents: Longitudinal relations among problematic Internet use, cyberbullying perpetration, and meeting strangers online. Journal of Behavioural Addictions, 5(1), 100 – 107.

Haataja, M. (2010). Social media applications in marketing communications of the marketing oriented companies. Aalto University School of Economics, Marketing Master’s Thesis.

Hasebrink, U., Livingstone, S., Haddon, L. & Olaffson K. (2009). Comparing Children’s Online Opportunities and Risks across Europe: Cross-national Comparisons for EU Kids Online. London: LSE.

Herring, S.C. & Kapidzic, S. (2015). Teens, Gender and Self-presentation in Socia Media. (Forthcoming, 2015). In: J. D. Wright (Ed.), International encyclopedia of social and behavioral sciences, 2nd edition. Oxford: Elsevier.

Johnson, G. M. (2011). Internet Activities and Developmental Predictors: Gender Differences Among Digital Natives. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 10(2), 64–76.

Kovachevikj, R., Bijedikj, M., Kuralikj-Kjishikj, L., & Muftikj, E. (2009). Family risk factors as indicators of behavioral problems with youth. Journal of special education and rehabilitation, 10, (1-2), 63-71. Downloaded from http://jser.fzf.ukim.edu.mk/pdf/20091/63-71_PSIHOLOSHKO-PEDAGOSHKI%20PREGLEDI_%20Ranko%20Kovachevikj.pdf

Life online through children’s eyes. (2017). Findings from the Children’s Advisory Panel. Downloaded from https://www.teliacompany.com/globalassets/telia-company/documents/about-telia-company/life-online---through-childrens-eyes-cap-report-2017.pdf

Lithuanian Department of Statistics. (2016). Downloaded from https://osp.stat.gov.lt/statistiniu-rodikliu-analize?hash=a425a426-4eef-42ef-a375-04dc6e735e02#/

Livingstone, S. & Helsper, E. (2008). Parental mediation and children‘s internet use. Journal of broadcasting & electronic media, 52 (2), 581– 599.

Livingstone, S., Kalmus V. & Talves, K. (2014). Girls’ and boys’ experiences of online risk and safety. In: Carter, C., Steiner, L., McLaughlin, L. (Eds.). The Routledge Companion to Media and Gender (pp. 190­-200). London: Routledge.

Noll, J. G., Chad E. & Barnes, J. E. (2013). Association of Maltreatment With High-Risk Internet Behaviors and Offline Encounters. Pediatrics, 10, 510–517.

Notten, N. & Nikken, P. (2014). Boys and girls taking risks online: A gendered perspective on social context and adolescents‘ risky online behavior. New Media & Society, 5, 1 – 23.

Paluckaitė, U. & Žardeckaitė-Matulaitienė, K. (2016). Students’ Engagement in Risky Online Behaviour: The Comparison of Youth and Secondary Schools’. The Europian Proceedings of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 11, 266 – 273.

Pociūtė, B. & Krancaitė, E. (2012). Paauglių aktyvumas vs pasyvumas interneto socialiniame tinkle „facebook“ ir sąsajos su jaučiamu vienišumu bei asmenybės bruožais. Psichologija, 8, 46–79.

Rafferty, F. (2009). Boys should be boys – is it that simple? Education Journal, 116, 32–41.

Rosen, L. D. (2007). Me, MySpace, and I: Parenting the net generation. NewYork: Palgrave Macmillan.

Schilder, J. D., Marjolein, B., Brusselaers J. & Bogaerts, S. (2016). The Effectiveness of an Intervention to Promote Awareness and Reduce Online Risk Behavior in Early Adolescence. J Youth Adolescence, 45, 286–300.

Silverman, D. (2011). Interpreting Qualitative Data. A Guide to the Principles of Qualitative Research. 4th ed. London: Sage Publications.

Sorbring, E., Skoog, T. & Bohlin, M. (2014). Adolescent girls’ and boys’ well-being in relation to online and offline sexual and romantic activity. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 8(1),1–16.

Steijn, W. M. P. (2014). A Developmental Perspective Regarding the Behaviour of Adolescents, Young Adults, and Adults on Social Network Sites. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace, 8 (2), 9–18.

Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (1990). Basic of Qualitative Research. Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. London: Sage Publications.

Turow, J. & Nir, L. (2000). The Internet and the family: The view of U.S. parents. In: C.von Feilitzen & U. Carlsson (Eds.), Children in the new media landscape (pp. 3313–3348). Göteborg, Sweden: UNESCO International Clearinghouse on Children and Violence on the Screen.

Targamadzė, V. (2016). The New Generation at the Crossboard of Cultures: Socialization Aspect. Multicultural Studies, 1, 65–76.

Vanderhoven, E., Schellens, T. & Valacke, M. (2014). Educating teens about the risks on social network sites. Media Educational Research Journal, 43(22), 123–131.

Vandoninck, S., d’Haenens, L. & Smahel, D. (2014). Preventative Measures: how youngsters avoid online risks. Downloaded from


Wellman, B. & Marin, A. (2009). Social Network Analysis: An Introduction. Downloaded from http://www2.units.it/dotstoriafil/MARIN%20WELLMAN%202009.pdf

Williams, A. L. & Merten, M. J. (2009). Adolescents' online social networking following the death of a peer. Journal of Adolescent Research, 24 (1), 67–90.

Wolak, J., Finkelhor, D., Mitchell, K. & Ybarra, M. (2008). Online “Predators” and their Victims: Myths, Realities and Implications for Prevention and Treatment. American Psychologist, 63, 111–128.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17770/sie2018vol1.3119


  • There are currently no refbacks.