Kristīne Šneidere, Zane Ozoliņa, Ainārs Stepens


In the past decade, there has been a rapid increase in people aged over 65 – in Latvia, it constitutes 34% of the population. It has been well established that depression is one of the psychiatric diseases often comorbid to dementia, therefore it is important to identify life-style related factors that could contribute not only to the delay of dementia symptoms but also decrease the possibility of depression in older adults. Thus the study aimed to investigate the relationship between work-related cognitive reserve, depression and overall cognitive functioning in older adults with no diagnosis of dementia or depression.

84 older adults aged from 65 – 92 (Mdn = 77, SD = 6.17, 76% women) with no diagnosis of dementia or depression participated in the study. To assess work-related cognitive reserve, Cognitive Reserve Index questionnaire (Nucci, Mapelli, & Mondini, 2012) was used, while for depression measures the 15- item Geriatric Depression Scale (Sheikh & Yesavage, 1986) was used. Overall cognitive functioning was measured using The Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale (Nasreddine et al., 2015).

To identify the relationship between the three variables, Spearman correlation coefficient was used. All variables correlated significantly. Both, work-related cognitive reserve and depression, predicted cognitive functioning. These results offer an insight into the possible positive contribution of the cognitive reserve not only to cognitive functioning, but also psychological well-being later in life. More studies in larger samples should be conducted to confirm the observation from this study.



cognitive reserve; work-related cognitive reserve; depression; cognitive functioning; older adults

Full Text:



Andrea, H., Bültmann, U., Van Amelsvoort, L.G.P.M., & Kant, Y. (2009). The incidence of anxiety and depression among employees - The role of psychosocial work characteristics. Depression and Anxiety, 26(11), 1040–1048. DOI:

Collins, N., Sachs-Ericsson, N., Preacher, K.J., Sheffield, K.M., & Markides, K. (2009). Smoking increases risk for cognitive decline among community-dwelling older Mexican Americans. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry : Official Journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry, 17(11), 934–942. DOI:

Enache, D., Winblad, B., & Aarsland, D. (2011). Depression in dementia: epidemiology, mechanisms, and treatment. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 24(6), 461–472. DOI:

Gale, C. R., Allerhand, M., & Deary, I.J. (2012). Is there a bidirectional relationship between depressive symptoms and cognitive ability in older people? A prospective study using the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Psychological Medicine, 42(10), 2057–2069. DOI:

Goodarzi, Z.S., Mele, B.S., Roberts, D.J., & Holroyd-Leduc, J. (2017). Depression Case Finding in Individuals with Dementia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 65(5), 937–948. DOI:

Huang, T.L., Zandi, P.P., Tucker, K.L., Fitzpatrick, A.L., Kuller, L.H., Fried, L.P., … Carlson, M.C. (2005). Benefits of fatty fish on dementia risk are stronger for those without APOE epsilon4. Neurology, 65(9), 1409–1414. DOI:

Kalmbach, D.A., Pillai, V., Cheng, P., Arnedt, J.T., & Drake, C.L. (2015). Shift work disorder, depression, and anxiety in the transition to rotating shifts: The role of sleep reactivity. Sleep Medicine, 16(12), 1532–1538. DOI:

Mondini, S., Madella, I., Zangrossi, A., Bigolin, A., Tomasi, C., Michieletto, M., … Mapelli, D. (2016). Cognitive reserve in dementia: Implications for cognitive training. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 8(APR), 1–7. DOI:

Nasreddine, Z.S., Phillips, N.A., Bedirian, V., Charbonneau, S., Whitehead, V., Collin, I., … Chertkow, H. (2005). The Montreal Cognitive Assessment, MoCA: A Brief Screening Tool For Mild Cognitive Impairment. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 53(4), 695–699. DOI:

Nucci, M., Mapelli, D., & Mondini, S. (2012). Cognitive Reserve Index questionnaire (CRIq): a new instrument for measuring cognitive reserve. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 24(3), 218–226.

Olesen, J., Gustavsson, A., Svensson, M., Wittchen, H.-U., Jönsson, B., CDBE2010 study group, & European Brain Council. (2012). The economic cost of brain disorders in Europe. European Journal of Neurology, 19(1), 155–162. DOI:

Perini, G., Ramusino, M. C., Sinforiani, E., Bernini, S., Petrachi, R., & Costa, A. (2019). Cognitive impairment in depression: Recent advances and novel treatments. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 15, 1249–1258. DOI:

Qiu, C., Kivipelto, M., & von Strauss, E. (2009). Epidemiology of Alzheimer’s disease: occurrence, determinants, and strategies toward intervention. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 11(2), 111–128. Retrieved from

Roberts, R.O., Geda, Y.E., Knopman, D.S., Christianson, T.J.H., Pankratz, V.S., Boeve, B.F., … Petersen, R.C. (2008). Association of Duration and Severity of Diabetes Mellitus With Mild Cognitive Impairment. Archives of Neurology, 65(8), 1066–1073. DOI:

Skoog, I., & Gustafson, D. (2003). Hypertension, hypertension-clustering factors and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurological Research, 25(6), 675–680. DOI:

Snowdon, D.A. (2003). Healthy Aging and Dementia: Findings from the Nun Study. Annals of Internal Medicine, 139(5 II), 450–454.

Steffener, J., & Stern, Y. (2012). Exploring the neural basis of cognitive reserve in aging. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease, 1822(3), 467–473. DOI:

Stenberg, J., Håberg, A. K., Follestad, T., Olsen, A., Iverson, G. L., Terry, D.P., … Vik, A. (2019). Cognitive Reserve Moderates Cognitive Outcome After Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. DOI:

Stern, Y. (2002). What is cognitive reserve? Theory and research application of the reserve concept. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society : JINS, 8(3), 448–460. Retrieved from

Stern, Y., Arenaza-Urquijo, E.M., Bartrés-Faz, D., Belleville, S., Cantilon, M., Chetelat, G., … Reserve, Resilience and Protective Factors PIA Empirical Definitions and Conceptual Frameworks Workgroup. (2018). Whitepaper: Defining and investigating cognitive reserve, brain reserve, and brain maintenance. Alzheimer’s & Dementia : The Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association. DOI:

Visentini, C., Cassidy, M., Bird, V.J., & Priebe, S. (2018, December 1). Social networks of patients with chronic depression: A systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders, Vol. 241, 571–578. DOI:

Yesavage, J.A., & Sheikh, J.I. (1986). 9/Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Clinical Gerontologist, 5(1-2), 165–173.



  • There are currently no refbacks.