RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERSONALITY TRAITS, GOD’S IMAGE, RELIGIOSITY AND RELIGIOUS COPING IN LATVIAN ROMAN CATHOLIC ADULTS’ SAMPLE

Ingrīda Trups-Kalne, Viktorija Perepjolkina, Inese Lietaviete

Abstract


The present study aims to examine the relationship between personality traits, God image and religious coping (RC) among Roman Catholics in Latvia. There were 336 respondents, aged 18 ‒ 86. We applied the Brief (RCOPE), God Image Scale (GIS), Latvian Personality Inventory (LPAv-3), The Centrality of Religiosity Scale CRS-5, including demographic data. The results showed positive correlation between Neuroticism and negative RC, but negative correlation with positive RC. Such personality traits as Openness, Conscientiousness and Agreeableness correlated positively with positive RC. Also Honesty-Humility and God Image correlated positively with positive RC and negatively – with negative RC. The study showed positive correlations between some dimensions of religiosity (and positive RC. Religious ideology and religious experience correlated negatively with negative RC. The study revealed that on the scale level the most relevant predictors of positive religious coping are scales such as religiosity and image of God, and personal traits such as agreeableness and openness. Likewise it was identified that on the scale level the most relevant predictors of negative religious coping are scales such as image of God, neuroticism and religiousness. These findings suggest tenets for psychological and pastoral interventions to decrease the impact of negative RC.

 


Keywords


image of God; personality traits; religiosity; religious coping

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abu-Raiya, H., Exline, J. J., Pargament, K. I., & Agbaria, Q. (2015). Prevalence, Predictors, and Implications of Religious/Spiritual Struggles Among Muslims. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 54(4), 631–648. https://doi.org/10.1111/jssr.12230

Abu-Raiya, H., Pargament, K. I., & Krause, N. (2016). Religion as problem, religion as solution: religious buffers of the links between religious/spiritual struggles and well-being/mental health. Quality of Life Research, 25(5), 1265–1274. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11136-015-1163-8

Ai, A.L., Pargament, K., Kronfol, Z., Tice, T.N., & Appel, H. (2010). Pathways to Postoperative Hostility in Cardiac Patients: Mediation of Coping, Spiritual Struggle and Interleukin-6. Journal of Health Psychology, 15(2), 186–195. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105309345556

Ai, A.L., Park, C. L., Huang, B., Rodgers, W., & Tice, T. N. (2007). Psychosocial mediation of religious coping styles: A study of short-term psychological distress following cardiac surgery. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(6), 867-882. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167207301008

Ano, G.G., & Pargament, K.I. (2013). Predictors of spiritual struggles: An exploratory study. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 16(4), 419-434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13674676.2012.680434

Ano, G.G., & Vasconcelles, E.B. (2005). Religious coping and psychological adjustment to stress: A meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61(4), 461-480. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20049.

Belavich, T. G., & Pargament, K. I. (2002). The role of attachment in predicting spiritual coping with a loved one in surgery. Journal of Adult Development, 9(1), 13-29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1013873100466

Benson, P., & Spilka, B. (1973). God Image as a Function of Self-Esteem and Locus of Control. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 12(3), 297-310. doi:10.2307/1384430

Bjorck, J.P., & Kim, J.W. (2009). Religious coping, religious support, and psychological functioning among short-term missionaries. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 12(7), 611-626. https://doi.org/10.1080/13674670903014932

Bryant, A.N., & Astin, H.S. (2008). The Correlates of Spiritual Struggle during the College Years. The Journal of Higher Education, 79(1), 1–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221546.2008.11772084

Ellison, C.G., Fang, Q., Flannelly, K.J., & Steckler, R.A. (2013). Spiritual struggles and mental health: Exploring the moderating effects of religious identity. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 23(3), 214-229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10508619.2012.759868

Exline, J.J. (2013). Religious and spiritual struggles. In K. I. Pargament, J. J. Exline, & J.W. Jones (Eds.), APA handbook of psychology, religion, and spirituality. Volume 1: Context, theory, and research (pp. 459– 475). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/14045-025

Exline, J.J., Park, C.L., Smyth, J.M., & Carey, M.P. (2011). Anger toward God: Social-cognitive predictors, prevalence, and links with adjustment to bereavement and cancer. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(1), 129-148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0021716

Freiheit, S.R., Sonstegard, K., Schmitt, A., & Vye, C. (2006). Religiosity and spirituality: A psychometric evaluation of the Santa Clara strength of religious faith questionnaire. Pastoral Psychology, 55(1), 27-33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11089-006-0029-y

George, L.K., Ellison, C.G., & Larson, D.B. (2002). Explaining the relationships between religious involvement and health. Psychological Inquiry, 13(3), 190-200. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1303_04.

Grubbs, J.B., & Exline, J.J. (2014). Humbling yourself before God: Humility as a reliable predictor of lower divine struggle. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 42(1), 41-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009164711404200105

Grubbs, J.B., Exline, J.J., & Campbell, W.K. (2013). I deserve better and God knows it! Psychological entitlement as a robust predictor of anger at God. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 5, 192-200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0032119

Grubbs, J.B., Wilt, J., Stauner, N., Exline, J.J., & Pargament, K. I. (2016). Self, struggle, and soul: Linking personality, self-concept, and religious/spiritual struggle. Personality and Individual Differences, 101, 144-152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.05.365

Harris, J.I., Erbes, C.R., Engdahl, B.E., Olson, R.H.A., Winskowski, A.M., & McMahill, J. (2008). Christian religious functioning and trauma outcomes. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 64(1), 17-29. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20427

Harrison, M.O., Koenig, H.G., Hays, J.C., Eme-Akwari, A.G., & Pargament, K. I. (2001). The epidemiology of religious coping: A review of recent literature. International Review of Psychiatry, 13(2), 86-93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540260120037317

Huber, S., & Huber, O. W. (2012). The Centrality of Religiosity Scale (CRS). Religions, 3(3), 710–724. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel3030710

Kirkpatrick, L. A., & Shaver, P. R. (1990). Attachment theory and religion: Childhood attachments, religious beliefs, and conversion. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 29(3), 315-334. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1386461

Koenig, H. G., Pargament, K. I., & Nielsen, J. (1998). Religious coping and health status in medically ill hospitalized older adults. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 186(9), 513-521. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-199809000-00001

Krause, N., & Ironson, G. (2019). Religious involvement, God images, and life satisfaction. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/13674676.2019.1586860

Lawrence, R. T. (1997). Measuring the Image of God: The God Image Inventory and the God Image Scales. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 25(2), 214-226. https://doi.org/10.1177/009164719702500206

Lazarus, R.S., & Folkman, S. (1984) Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer

Lewis, C. A., Maltby, J., & Day, L. (2005). Religious orientation, religious coping and happiness among UK adults. Personality and Individual Differences, 38(5), 1193-1202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2004.08.002

Lietaviete (2016). Stresa prvarēšanas stratēģijas un pašefektīvitātes izjūta onkoloģiskajiem pacientiem. LU 74. Zinātniskās konferences Psiholoģijas sekcija, 2016.gada 9.februārī.

Ludāne, M. (2006). Dieva tēla uztveres un krīzes novērtējuma saistība pie dažādām konfesijām piederošiem/nepiederošiem cilvēkiem (Bakalaura darbs. Latvijas Universitāte).

McConnell, K. M., Pargament, K. I., Ellison, C. G., & Flannelly, K. J. (2006). Examining the links between spiritual struggles and symptoms of psychopathology in a national sample. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(12), 1469–1484. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20325

Pargament, K. I. (1997). The psychology of religion and coping: Theory, research, practice. New York: Guilford Press.

Pargament, K. I., Tarakeshwar, N., Ellison, C. G., & Wulff, K. M. (2001). Religious coping among the religious: The relationships between religious coping and well-being in a national sample of Presbyterian clergy, elders, and members. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 40(3), 497-513. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0021-8294.00073

Pargament, K., Feuille, M.,& Burdzy, D. (2011). The Brief RCOPE: Current Psychometric Status of a Short Measure of Religious Coping. Religions, 2(1), 51-76. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel2010051

Pargament, K.I., Smith, B.W., Koenig, H.G., & Perez, L. (1998). Patterns of positive and negative religious coping with major life stressors. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 37(4), 711-725.

Perepjolkina, V. (2014). Daudzdimensionālas personības aptaujas izstrāde un validizācija Latvijas pieaugušo izlasē (Promocijas darbs, Latvijas Universitāte). Iegūts no https://dspace.lu.lv/dspace/handle/7/4921

Perepjolkina, V. (2016). Personības iezīmju saistība ar veselību. No K. Mārtinsone un V. Sudraba (red.). Veselības psiholoģija (131.-142. lpp.). Rīga: RSU.

Rizzuto, A. M. (1979). Birth of the Living God: A Psychoanalytic Study. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Roesch, S. C., Ano, G. (2003). Testing an attribution and coping model of stress: Religion as an orienting system. Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 22(3), 197–209.

Saroglou, V. (2010). Religiousness as a Cultural Adaptation of Basic Traits: A Five-Factor Model Perspective. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14(1), 108–125. https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868309352322

Schreiber, J. A. (2011). Image of God: Effect on Coping and Psychospiritual Outcomes in Early Breast Cancer Survivors. Oncology Nursing Forum. https://doi.org/10.1188/11.onf.293-301

Sedlar, A. E., Stauner, N., Pargament, K. I., Exline, J. J., Grubbs, J. B., & Bradley, D. F. (2018). Spiritual Struggles among Atheists: Links to Psychological Distress and Well-Being. Religions. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel9080242

Clair, D. M. S. (2018). The Protective Virtue: The Moderating Effect of Humility on the Relationship Between Spiritual Struggle and Distressing Life Events (Doctoral dissertation, Biola University).

Stauner, N., Exline, J. J., Pargament, K. I., Wilt, J. A., & Grubbs, J. B. (2018). Stressful life events and religiousness predict struggles about religion and spirituality. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rel0000189

Tisdale, T. C., Key, T. L., Edwards, K. J., Brokaw, B. F., Kemperman, S. R., Cloud, H., Townsend J., & Okamoto, T. (1997). Impact of treatment on God image and personal adjustment, and correlations of God image to personal adjustment and object relations development. Journal of Psychology and Theology, 25(2), 227-239. https://doi.org/10.1177/009164719702500207

Trevino, K. M., Pargament, K. I., Krause, N., Ironson, G., & Hill, P. (2017). Stressful events and religious/spiritual struggle: Moderating effects of the general orienting system. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rel0000149

Wilt, J. A., Exline, J. J., Grubbs, J. B., Park, C. L., & Pargament, K. I. (2016). God’s role in suffering: Theodicies, divine struggle, and mental health. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 8(4), 352-362. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rel0000058

Wilt, J. A., Grubbs, J. B., Exline, J. J., & Pargament, K. I. (2016). Personality, religious and spiritual struggles, and well-being. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, 8(4), 341-351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rel0000054

Wilt, J. A., Grubbs, J. B., Pargament, K. I., & Exline, J. J. (2017). Religious and Spiritual Struggles, Past and Present: Relations to the Big Five and Well-Being. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion. https://doi.org/10.1080/10508619.2016.1183251

Wilt, J. A., Stauner, N., Harriott, V. A., Exline, J. J., & Pargament, K. I. (2018). Partnering with God: Religious coping and perceptions of divine intervention predict spiritual transformation in response to religious−spiritual struggle. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality. Advance online publication. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/rel0000221

Wilt, J. A., Evans, W. R., Pargament, K. I., Exline, J. J., Fletcher, T. L., & Teng, E. J. (2019). Predictors of Moral Struggles Among Veterans. Traumatology, (December). https://doi.org/10.1037/trm0000186

Wood, A.M., Froh, J.J., & Geraghty, A.W. (2010). Gratitude and well-being: a review and theoretical integration. Clinical psychology review, 30(7), 890-905. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cpr.2010.03.005

Wortmann, J. H., Park, C. L., & Edmondson, D. (2012). Spiritual struggle and adjustment to loss in college students: Moderation by denomination. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 22(4), 303-320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10508619.2011.638605

Zarzycka, B. (2019). Parental Attachment Styles and Religious and Spiritual Struggle: A Mediating Effect of God Image. Journal of Family Issues, 40(5), 575–593. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X18813186




DOI: https://doi.org/10.17770/sie2020vol7.5057

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.