Elena Nikolaeva, Margarita Gaidamakina, Darja A. Zavodovskaia


The hypothesis was tested that these children may be more effective than their normally developing counterparts when analyzing a signal flow unrelated to speech or social conditions, for example something that is Nature-based or abstract. There were 52 participants in the study: 22 children with autism spectrum disorders, ranging in age from 3.1 to 7.9 years old, and 30 normally developing children, who were 4-5 years old.  In order to achieve the goals and objectives the following methodologies were used: the Sally-Anne test; reflexometry; Raven’s Colored Progressive Matrices; a parent questionnaire. Results. Out of the 22 preschool children with ASDs, 21 of them had an unformed theory of mind.  In the norm group, 80 percent of the children had a formed theory of mind. Mute preschool children with ASDs made fewer mistakes in the simple sensory-motor reactions (of the go-go type). Mute children with ASDs were better at orienting themselves in a sensory flow that was unrelated to speech and social information, which can be considered as a compensatory reaction, given their psychophysical inability to develop normal speech.  In mute children with ASDs, the level of nonverbal intelligence was no different from that of the children in the norm group.



autism spectrum disorders; signals flow; reaction time

Full Text:



Baillargeon, R., Scott, R. M., & Bian, L. (2016). Psychological reasoning in infancy. Annual review of psychology, 67, 159-186.

Byrge, L., Sporns, O., & Smith, L.B. (2014). Developmental process emerges from extended brain-body-behavior networks. Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 18(8), 395–403. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. tics.2014.04.010

Brascamp, J., Sterzer, Ph., Blake, R., & Knapen, T. (2018). Multistable Perception and the Role of the Frontoparietal Cortex in Perceptual Inference. Annual Review of Psychology. 69, 77–103

Case-Smith, J., Weaver, L.L., & Fristad, M.A. (2015). A systematic review of sensory processing interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders. Autism. 19(2), 133–148.

Constantino, J. N., & Charman, T. (2016). Diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder: reconciling the syndrome, its diverse origins, and variation in expression. The Lancet Neurology. 15(3), 279–291.

de Vries, M., & Geurts, H.M. (2012). Cognitive Flexibility in ASD; Task Switching with Emotional Faces. Journal of Autism Development Disorder. 42, 2558–2568. DOI 10.1007/s10803-012-1512-1

Flavell, J. H. (2004). Theory-of-Mind Development: Retrospect and Prospect. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 50(3), 274.

Fotowat, H., & Gabbiani, F. (2011). Collision Detection as a Model for Sensory-Motor Integration. Annual Review of Neurosciences. 34, 1–19.

Frith, U., & Happé, F. (1994). Language and communication in autistic disorders. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 346(1315), 97-104.

Gallivan, J. P., Logan, L., Wolpert, D. M., & Flanagan, J. R. (2016). Parallel specification of competing sensorimotor control policies for alternative action options. Nature neuroscience, 19(2), 320.

Gillberg, C., & Fernell, E. (2014). Autism plus versus autism pure. Journal of Autism Develoment Disourders.12, 1274—1276.

Green, S.A., Rudie, J.D., Colich, N.L., Wood, J.J., Shirinyan, D., Hernandez, L., Tottenham, N., Dapretto, M., & Bookheimer, S.Y. (2013). Overreactive brain responses to sensory stimuli in youth with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 52, 1158–1172.

He, C.X. , Cantu, D.A., Mantri, S.S., Zeigler, W.A., Gael, A., & Portera-Cailliau, C. (2017). Tactile defensiveness and impaired adaptation of neuronal activity in the Fmr1 knockout mouse model of autism. Journal of Neuroscience, 37(27), 6475-6487. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0651-17.2017.

Krivischekov, S.G., Belisheva, N.K., Nikolaeva, E.I., Vergunov, E.G., Martinova, A.A., Elnikova, O.E., Prjanichnikov, S.V., Anufriev, G.N., & Balios, N.B. (2016). Conceptions of the allostasis and adaptation of the human being on the North. Human ecology. 7, 17-25.

Leong, H.M., Carter, M., & Stephenson, J. (2015). Systematic review of sensory integration therapy for individuals with disabilities: single case design studies. Research of the Developmental Disabilities. 47, 334–351.

Lerner, M.D., Calhoun, C.D., Mikami, A.Y., De Los Reyes, A. (2012). Understanding Parent–Child Social Informant Discrepancy in Youth with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. Journal of Autism Development Disorders. 42, 2680–2692. DOI 10.1007/s10803-012-1525-9.

Luna, B., Marek, S., Larsen, B., Tervo-Clemmens, B., & Chahal, R. (2015). An integrative model of the maturation of cognitive control. Annual Review of Neurosciences. 38, 151–170.

McPartland, J.C., Klin, A. & Volkmar, F.R. (2014). Asperger Syndrome: Assessing and Treating High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders. L.: Guilford Publications.

Mišić, B., Doesburg, S.M., & Fatima, Z. (2015). Coordinated information generation and mental flexibility: large-scale network disruption in children with autism. Cerebral Cortex. 25(9), 2815–2827.

Nikolskaya, O.C., Baenslaya, E.P., Libling, M.M. (2012). Autistic Child. Way of help. M.: Terbimf.

Nikolaeva, E.I., & Merenkova, V.S. (2015). Psychological and Psychophysiological mechanisms of the influence of the quantity of caring for child on health. Psychological health. 36 (3), 52-59.

Nikolaeva, E., & Merenkova, V. (2017). An inner picture of health as a factor in changing a child’s behavior to health-promoting behavior. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art. 10(4), 162-171.

Nikolaeva, E.I., Novikova, A.V., & Vergunov, E.G. (2018). The correlation between intelligence, creativity and the parameters of sensorimotor integration in children of different ages. Psychology in Russia: State of the Art . 11(2), 68-80.

Oppenheimer, D.M., & Kelso, E. (2015). Information Processing as a Paradigm for Decision Making. Annual Review of Psychology. 66, 277–94.

Raven, J., Raven, J.C., & Court, J.H. (2003). Manual for Raven’s Progressive Matrices and Vocabulary Scales. San Antonio, TX: Harcourt Assessment.

Sabbagh, M.A., Bowman, L.C., Evraire, L.E., & Jennie, M.B. (2009). Neurodevelopmental Correlates of Theory of Mind in Preschool. Child Development, 80(4), 1147–1162.

Santos, L.R., & Rosati, A.G. (2015). The Evolutionary Roots of Human Decision Making. Annual Review of Psychology. 66, 321–347.

Sinclair, D., Oranje, B., Razak, K.A., Siegel, S.J., & Schmid, S. (2016) Sensory processing in autism spectrum disorders and fragile X syndrome—from the clinic to animal models. Neurosciences and Biobehavioral Review. 76, 235–253.

Vygotsky, L.S. (1934/1987). Thinking and speech. In: R. W. Rieber & A. S. Carton (Ed.), The collected works of Vygotsky, Problems of general psychology, Volume 1 (pp. 37-285). New York and London.

Weitlauf, A.S., Sathe, N., McPheeters, M.L., & Warren, Z.E. (2017). Interventions Targeting Sensory Challenges in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review. American Academy of Pediatrics. 139(6). DOI: 10.1542/peds.2017-0347.

Zashchirinskaia, O., & Nikolaeva, E. (2018). The fairytale character in advertisement as a means of influence on children. The European proceedings of Social & Behavioural Sciences. 27,195-203. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.15405/epsbs.2018.07.27

DOI: https://doi.org/10.17770/sie2019vol4.3894


  • There are currently no refbacks.