SEMANTICS OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE IN NOVEL “PĪTERS VYLĀNS” BY ČENČU JEZUPS

Ligija Purinaša

Abstract


Physical violence is a social phenomenon, which is mostly connected with human psychology. There are two main instincts typical of human beings: instinct of life and instinct of death. Violence is one of death instincts. Čenču Jezups (real name Jezups Kindzuļs, 1888–1941?) was a Latgalian public figure, agronomist, publicist and writer. His novel “Pīters Vylāns” is written about 1905 Russian Revolution, which also occurred in the territory of Latvia and Latgale and was one of the most forcible periods in the history of Latvia during the 20th century. Bearing in mind that language is always linked with thinking and language usage reflects author’s view of the world, the aim of this research is to analyse semantics of lexis connected with physical violence. The author of this research has selected the methods of semantic field theory, linguacultural approach, and analysis of semantic components. There is much discussion about meaning in linguistics and semantics, which shows that semantic analysis is often a subjective process depending on researcher’s interpretation. To obtain reliable results, this research is based on the theory about semantic roles and how they display physical violence. Major or core semantic roles are Aggressor, Victim and Cause. The author of this research is interested in interpersonal physical violence, which appears in novel “Pīters Vylāns” as Subjects or Objects of physical violence. There are several functional levels of physical violence lexis: 1) it is actualized in context with 1905 Russian Revolution; 2) it is a way, how to give a masculine voice in novel; 3) subjects and objects of psychical violence are interacting; 4) it demonstrates some features of patriarchal thinking. A number of verbs are used to describe violence, which means that violence is very active and it includes lot of persons as aggressors or victims, or both. In some cases subjects of physical violence are anonymous. Usage of pronouns is also important, because they help to describe violence. For example, “I” as storyteller , “you” in dialogue function, “he” or “she” as the third person or somebody and “we” as group of aggressors or victims. Domestic violence is directed to husband or wife and mostly it is described as men’s power over women, but in some cases also women are aggressors.

Keywords


Jezups Kindzuļs; Latgalian literature; physical violence; semantics.; Čenču Jezups;

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References


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17770/latg2018.11.3067

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