Sandra Ūdre


When assessing the previous experience in the research of intertextuality as problematical should be acknowledged the choice of terms being used, definition of units subject to analysis and systematization according to certain criteria. For solution of problematic issues recognition of intertexteme is offered as the lowest representation of intertextuality. When the mechanism of intertextuality is reviewed structurally, it reveals in correlation of the form and semantics. In order to the text unit, taken from the source text and entered into another text, to become a intertexteme, it should meet two essential conditions: various forms of modification must not destroy the recognition of form, it is an external sign; but semantics of the intertexteme is never identical with its semantics in the source text.

In the intertextuality studies the difficulties are caused by determination of the form and the modification of it. Intertexteme may be represented by a single word (Eve, Samson, Katre, etc.), the expression (I have lost my son, Judas has hung himself, red Marx shepherds calves, etc.), longer text or a fragment, such as folk song. In order to all the intertextemes to be analyzed as one-level elements, form of intertexteme should represent a generalized model - the frame, which was introduced into linguistics to designate the human cognitive experience reflected in the language at the 70ties of 20th century by American linguist Charles Fillmore (Fillmore 2006).

Components of situation covered by the source and intertexteme frames are selected in the same way as for the semantic theory of syntax on proposition or situation reflected in the sentence (Ceplītis, Rozenbergs, Valdmanis 1989: 93). In the frame of source and intertexteme three types of components have to be acknowledged as essential: subject, function, object. The analysis of the term “function” introduced in analysis of fairy-tales by Vladimir Prop (Пропп 1998: 19) is more accurate than "predicate" of the theory of syntax.

For accurate determination of intertextemes an original typology model of intertextemes developed by a structural approach is offered. It is based on the combination of the attitudes of form and semantics. For its description the principle of analogy is used - consistency of the model and the object to be displayed in a certain proportion. For intertextuality expressions of the Latgalian original plays six types have been found. Four basic types of intertextemes include:

componentary intertexteme – such an intertexteme, where variables of the source form (subject and object) can be replaced by appropriate equivalents, while keeping the same semantics, the fixed component is a function, for example, the red Marx (source (Lk 15: 15) frame subject – The Prodigal Son), shepherds (function) calves (source frame object – swine) in the play "At the Photographer” written by Pīters Apšinīks (1935);

componentary commutative intertexteme – an intertexteme in which the corresponding variable components of the source and intertexteme are mutually changing places (source and intertexteme frames have at least two subjects each), but the intertexteme retains basic semantics of the source, such as the biblical text (Mk 6: 17–28, Mt 14: 3–11), also known as the Salome motif, the ruler Herod at the request of Herodias’ daughter Salome cuts down John the Baptist's head, but in drama "Sunken Palace" by Francis Trasuns (1928) Herodias’ daughter counterpart Dzylna according to order from Commissioner Viļaks leaves to kill the hero Bolvs and to bring his head;

semantically modified intertexteme – an intertexteme, which, while preserving the source frame subject component, yet the semantics or the source subject function in the intertexteme is supplemented, modified, but not destroyed, for example, in the drama "Fire" by Konstance Daugule (1914) the nature of group of women's characters of three generations Eve (past ) → Katre (present) → Ane (future): Eve represents the older generation and to her name of the first woman's of humanity (Gen 3: 20) makes her within the women's trio of drama to be founder of the wedding policy implemented by Katre (supplement of the function). Katre resembles the domineering Russian Empress Catherine II and is the current master of situation in the family, but like as Eve has married into a wealthy house not due to love. Nature and name of Anis character as an intertexteme points to several sources. In Russian literature, the best-known Anna, who was unable to resolve the problem of realization of her femininity, which leads to disaster, is Anna Karenina (Tolstoy 1985), as the most outstanding child avatar image of women is recognized Anya Ranevskaya of Anton Chekhov's comedy "The Cherry Orchard" (Chekhov 2005), similarly indecisive is also heroine Hannah Reis of the Izhok- Leibush Perez’s one-act play "Burns” (Perez 1972);

semantically polar intertexteme – an intertexteme, where the intertexteme semantics is in polar opposition to the source semantics, but the components remain the same, for example, in the drama "Vocation" (1930) by Naaizmērstule selfish father calls his son prodigal for chosing the Catholic priest vocation, while in the Christian perception his son's choice is appraised as the highest fulfillment of Holy Spirit, and the father in this case has to be considered prodigal; in comedy "Native Land" by Ontons Rupainis (1936), Anna annoys her sweetheart Gabris with a folksong distich "I would not follow the path where boyard’s son is going ", forcing him to guess subtext of the game that everything should be understood the other way.

Defective intertextemes have to be divided into two auxiliary types:

formal intertexteme – defective intertexteme in the form that creates an inkling of intertextuality and connotations, but intertextual semantics is not detectable, for example name of one-act play "Eve’s Mistake" by Pīters Apšinīks (1937) creates a connotation of the Old Testament Eve, wherewith the main promulgator of the semantics is a function-naming component “mistake” creating connotations of the relationship sphere with Adam, her man, with the devil, in form of the paradise garden tempter serpent, or other forms of femininity; contents of the play destroys the a line of possible associations, Eve turns out to be rural woman confused in a modern city bank;

sourceless intertexteme – defective intertexteme, form of which has nothing to do with the source text, but it raises intertextual connotations of specific source, such as play "Prodigal Son" by Jezups Kazlas for creation of background from Scriptures is using fictional succession of person’s names, such as Digs, Barzacs, Romars, Rogaļs, Janyrs, but the reader/spectator can believe them to be authentic Biblical characters.

When assessing the results of the study, conclusion should be made that, first, the very fact of intertextuality in texts written in Latgalian at the first-half of the 20th century is indicative of creative ideas and extensive searches of the Latgalian dramatists; second, experience and open typology model gained in research of the phenomenon of intertextuality as an effective methodological tool is usable also in subsequent studies, and may be offered to others.



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