Influence of SiO2 nanoparticles on relative fluorescence of plant cells

Dace Grauda, Isaak Rashal, Inta Belogrudova, Alexey Katashev, Lada Bumbure


Nanoparticles (nano-scale particles (NSPs)) are defined as particles with dimensions less than 100 nm. SiO2 nanoparticles are one of the most widely common nanoparticles in the environment, particularly in urban areas. The sources of SiO2 nanoparticles are very different, including natural nanoparticles, anthropogenic and engineered nanoparticles. The SiO2 nanoparticles could be considered a source of different pollution effects on leaving organisms. Nevertheless, knowledge of the mechanisms, through which the SiO2 nanoparticles affect cells, is incomplete. The aim of the research was to elaborate a method to determine changes in relative fluorescence of both somatic and immature gametic plant cells in presence of SiO2 nanoparticles. Relative cell fluorescence was measured with BD FACSJazz® cell sorter using 488 nm exciting laser light. Mean cell fluorescence was determined for samples of purified cell suspension. Gates of different size and shape were preliminary tested to find those with the lowest CV. Cell plots were created by BS FACS Software The densest part of the plot was gated using oval-shaped gate. The gate included 95-99% of all cells. A logarithmic scale in arbitrary fluorescence units was applied to determine cell relative fluorescence. More than 10 000 cells were gated and analysed from each sample. Somatic cell culture from callus culture initiated from leaves of flax (Linum usitatissimum) was obtained. The relative fluorescence of the somatic cells had large distribution, since the cells differ by many parameters (size, shape, metabolism etc.). Immature pollen cells (one-nucleus stage) as best for SiO2 nanoparticles influence investigation were found. The influence of SiO2 nanoparticles on several plant species (Cyclamen persicum, Tilia cordata, Hordeum vulgare and Triticum aestivum) immature pollen cells were investigated. A significant increase in relative cell fluorescence was observed for all mentioned plant species cells after incubation in SiO2 nanoparticles suspension. It was found that cell relative fluorescence was dependent on cultivation duration in SiO2 nanoparticles suspension.


plant cell fluorescence; flow cytometry; SiO2 nanoparticles; urban ecology

Full Text:



P. Ball, Natural Strategies for the Molecular Engineer, Nanotechnology, 2002, no. 13, pp. 15-28.

V. L. Colvin, The Potential Environmental Impact of Engineered Nanomaterials, Nature Biotechnology, 2003, vol. 10, no. 21, pp. 1166-1170.

D. Lin and B. Xing, Phytotoxicity of Nanoparticles: Inhibition of Seed Germination and Root Growth. Environmental Pollution, 2007, vol. 150, pp. 243-250.

R. C. Monica, R. Cremonini, Nanoparticles and higher plants. Caryologia, 2009, vol. 62 no. 2, pp. 161-165.

J. Wang and D.Y.H. Pui, Characterization, exposure measurement and control for nanoscale particles in workplaces and on the road. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 2011, vol. 304, pp. 1-14.

A. Campos-Ramos, A. Aragon-Pina, A. Alastuey, I. Galindo-Estrada, X. Querol, Levels, compositions and source apportionement of rural background PM10 in western Mexico (state of Colima). Atmospheric Pollution Research, 2011. no. 2, pp. 409-417.

P. Kumar, L. Pirjola, M. Ketzel, R. M. Harrison, Nanoparticle emissions from 11 non-vehicle exhaust sources – a review. Atmospheric Environment, 2013, no. 67, pp. 252–277.

J. Duan, Y. Yu, Y. Li, P. Huang, X. Zhou, S. Peng, Z. Sun, Silica nanoparticles enhance autophagic activity, disturb endothelial cell homeostasis and impair angiogenesis. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, no. 11, p.50, 2014.

T. Mizutani, K. Arai, M. Miyamoto, Y. Kimura, Application of silica-containing nanocomposite emulsion to wall paint: a new environmentally safe paint of high performance. Progress in Organic Coatings, 2006, no. 55, pp. 276–83.

L. Reijnders, The release of TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles from nanocomposites. Polymer Degradation and Stability, 2009, no. 94, pp. 873–876.

C. Wei, Y. Zhang, J. Guo, B. Han, X. Yang, J. Yuan, Effects of silica nanoparticles on growth and photosynthetic pigment contents of Scenedesmus obliquus. J. Environ Sci (China), 2010, vol. 22, no. 1, pp.155-60.

M. Kalteh, T. A. Zarrin, A. Shahram, M. A. Maryam, F. N. Alireza, Effect of silica Nanoparticles on Basil (Ocimum basili-cum) Under Salinity Stress. Journal of Chemical Health Risks, 2014, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 49–55.

T. Djaković, Z. Jovanović, The role of cell wall peroxidase in the inhibition of leaf and fruit growth. Bulg. J. Plant Physiol. Special Issue, 2003, pp. 264-272.

J. Dožel, J. Greilhuber, J. Suda, ed., Flow cytometry with plants: an overview., Flow cytometry with plant cells. WILEY- VCH Verlag GmbH&Co. KGaA, 2007, pp. 41-65.

C. O. Dimkpa, J. E. McLean, D .E. Latta, E. Manangó, D. W. Britt, W. P. Johnson, M. I. Boyanov, A. J. Anderson, CuO and ZnO nanoparticles; phytotoxicity, metal speciation, and induction of oxidative stress in sand-grown wheat. J Nanopart Res., 2012, vol.14, no. 9, 1-15.

J. P. Robinson and G. Grégori, Principles of flow cytometry. In: Doležel, J., Greilhuber, J., and Suda J. ed. Flow cytometry with plant cells. WILEY- VCH Verlag GmbH&Co. KGaA, 2007, pp. 19-40.

B.O.R. Bargmann and K.D. Birnbaum, Positive fluorescent selection permits preside, rapid and in-depth overexpression analysis in plant protoplasts. Pant Physiogy, 2009, no. 149, pp. 1231-1239.

D.W. Galbraith, Flow cytometry and fluorescence-activated cell sorting in plants: the past, present, and future. Biomédica, 2010, no. 30, pp. 65-70.

D. Grauda, A. Miķelsone, A. Auziņa, V. Stramkale, I. Rashal, Use of Plant Biotechnology Methods for Flax Breeding in Latvia. In book: Zaikov G. E., Pudel F. ed. Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry, Biotechnology and Renewable Resources.Research and Development. vol. 1 - Today and Tomorrow. 2013. Nova Science Publishers, Inc., USA, pp. 1-10.

D. Grauda, A. Miķelsone, I. Rashal. Use of antioxidants for enhancing flax multiplication rate in tissue culture. Acta Horticulturae, 2009, no. 812, pp. 147-151.

K.J. Kasha, E. Simion, R. Oro and Y.S. Shim, Barley isolated microspore culture protocol. In Double haploid production in crop plants. ed. Maluszynski, K.J. Kasha, B.P. Forster, and I. Szarejko. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, Boston, and London, 2003, pp. 43–47.

B. Barnabás, Protocol for producing doubled haploid plants from anther culture of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In: Maluszymski M., Kasha, K.J., Forster, B.P., Szarejko I. ed.: Dubled Haploid Production in Crop Plants. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2003, pp.65–70.

T. Murashige, F. Skoog, A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays ith tobacco tissue culture. Plantarium, 1962, no. 15, pp. 473-497.

X. Ma, J. Geisler-Lee, Y. Deng, A. Kolmakov, Interaction between engineered nananoparticles (ENPs) and plants (Phytotoxicity, uptake and accumulation. Sci Total Environ, 2010, no. 408, pp. 3053-3061.

I. Kokina, Ē. Sļedevskis, V. Gerbreders, D. Grauda, M. Jermaļonoka, K. Valaine, I. Gavarāne, I. Pigiņka, M. Filipovičs, I. Rashal, Reaction of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) calli culture to supplement of medium by carbon nanoparticles. Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences Section B, 2013, vol. 66, no. 415, pp. 220-209.

C. O. Dimkpa, J. E. McLean, D .E. Latta, E. Manangó, D. W. Britt, W. P. Johnson, M. I. Boyanov, A. J. Anderson, CuO and ZnO nanoparticles; phytotoxicity, metal speciation, and induction of oxidative stress in sand-grown wheat. J Nanopart Res., 2012, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 1-15.

Reijnders L., The release of TiO2 and SiO2 nanoparticles from nanocomposites Polymer Degradation and Stability, 2009, no. 94, pp. 873–876.

M. Neumann, D. Gabel, Simple method for reduction of autofluorescence in fluorescence microscopy, J Histochem Cytochem, 2002, vol. 50, no. 3, p. 437.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

SCImago Journal & Country Rank