RESEARCH OF GUIDELINES FOR DESIGNING E-STUDY MATERIALS

Kristīne Mackare, Anita Jansone

Abstract


E-study use is increasing; its main content is information for self-education and it is delivered to the user through modern technologies that provide greater opportunities. In order to reach the user, information must be presented in a comprehensible and easy to remember way. The article focuses on the recommended ways of information presentation in e-studies, so that it would be possible to perceive and memorize information more efficiently, it also focuses on technologies that could help in building and analysing ways of presentation. There are analysed several technology products and presented various examples. The authors offer recommendation Guidelines for development and presentation of e-study materials, their assessment and presentation considering user needs and requirements of research, as well as literature study research, and, also, based on the foundations of visual science. The focus for the development of Guidelines was particularly on the visual function importance in the reading and learning process, as clear and stable text perception primarily is provided by near visual functions. In a structured manner, there are recommendations presented for a user-friendly e-study material design - style, size, spacing, position, colour - which should be applied for easy perception with visual processes, thus helping the learning process and facilitating memorization.
As nowadays there is a growing need for teaching methods and learning environment that is user-oriented, guidance specifics may be different for each of the e-study targeting groups that are divided primarily into three groups: children, adults, and seniors because each group has a different needs, requirements, and visual perception, as well as it is necessary to consider other features of the user which may differ from the standard and affect efficiency of recommendations. This work deals with part of the target group – adults (16-38).

Keywords


e-study; e-study environment; technologies; visual perception

Full Text:

PDF

References


Rayner, K. Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research. Psychological Bulletin. 1998. Vol.124 p.372–422

Dyson, C.M. How physical text layout affects reading from screen, Behavior & Information technology, November-December 2004, Vol.23 No6, 377-393

Pozņaka K. Redzes atmiņas tests latviešu valodā: bakalaura darbs. LU Fizikas un matemātikas fakultāte. Rīga: Latvijas Universitāte, 2013

Pozņaka K. Lasīšanas atmiņas novērtēšana ar tekstu uz monitora un drukātu tekstu: maģistra darbs. LU Fizikas un matemātikas fakultāte. Rīga: Latvijas Universitāte, 2015

Muzammil Khan, Khushdil; Comprehensive Study on the Basis of Eye Blink, Suggesting Length of Text Line, Considering Typographical Variables the Way How to Improve Reading from Computer Screen; Advances in Internet of Things Vol.3 No.1(2013)

Nielsen, J. “Designing Web Usability: The Practice of Simplicity,” New Riders Publishing, Indianapolis, 2000, p. 420.

Washington State Department of State, eLearning Design Guid, WSDOT, 2013

Lynch, J.P., Horton, S. Web Style Guide 4th edition, 2016

Dyslexie font, Tex loyout, https://www.dyslexiefont.com/en/background-information/text-layout-advice/ (Piekļuve: 12.03.2017.)

Autoru grupa, Valsts izglītības standartiem atbilstošas mācību literatūras satura izstrāde uz izvērtēšana, Metodiskie materiāli,

Olyslager, P. The Optimal Text Layout is More Than Line Length, 2012 https://www.paulolyslager.com/optimal-text-layout-line-length/ (Piekļuve: 12.02.2017.)

Rayner, K., Foorman, B., Perfetti, C., Pesetsky, D., Seidenberg, M. How Psychological Science Informs the Teaching of Reading. Psychological Science in the Public Interest 2001. N 2 p.31–74.

Rayner, K. The perceptual span and peripheral cues in reading. Cognitive Psychology 1975. Vol.7 p.65-81

Raza, M. Length of Text Line on the Bases of Eye Blink to Reduce Maximum Focus Losses. International Journal of Computer Applications 2012. N 8 p.15-21

Bernard, L.M., Fernandez, M., Hull, S. & Chaparro, B.S., The effects of line length on children and adults’ perceived and actual online reading performance, Proceeding of the human factors and ergonomics society 47th annual meeting - 2003

Azuma, M., Ikeda, T., Minomoto, T., Osaka, M., Osaka, N. High working memory performers have efficient eye movement control systems under Reading Span Test Journal of Eye Movement Research 2012. N 5 p.1-10

Bernard, M., Fernandes, M., Hull, S. The Effects of Line Length on Children and Adults’ Online Reading Performance. Usability News 2002. Vol.4

Rayner, K., Slattery, T. J., Bélanger, N.N. Eye movements, the perceptual span, and reading speed. Psychon Bull Rev. 2010 Vol.17 p. 834–839

Dyson, M. C., Kipping, G. J. The elects of line length and method of movement on patterns of reading from screen. Visible language 1998. Vol.32 p.150-181

Definition http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/font (Piekļuve 22.02.2017.)

Clarke, A. 12 Typography Guidelines for Good Website Usability, 2012 http://usabilitygeek.com/12-typography-guidelines-for-good-website-usability/ (Piekļuve: 3.02.2017.)

Ganayim, D., Ibrahim, R., How Do Typographical Factors Affect Reading Text and Comprehension Performance in Arabic?; Human Factor Vol. 55, No. 2, April 2013, pp. 323-332

Reynolds, Dan. How To Choose The Right Face For A Beautiful Body, Smashing. Retrieved 13 September 2015

Frere-Jones, Tobias. "MicroPlus". Frere-Jones Type. Retrieved 1 December 2015. https://frerejones.com/blog/introducing-microplus (Piekļuve: 22.02.2017.)

Miellet, S, O'Donnell, P.J, Sereno, S.C. Parafoveal magnification: Visual acuity does not modulate the perceptual span in reading. Psychological Science. 2009. Vol.20 p.721–728

Constantin, J., Typographic Design Patterns And Current Practices, 2013 https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2013/05/typographic-design-patterns-practices-case-study-2013/ (Piekļuve: 12.03.2017.)

Marc Schenker, Why Online Fonts Need to Be Bigger Than You Expect for Awesome UX, 2016, https://www.paulolyslager.com/why-online-fonts-bigger-awesome-ux/ (Piekļuve: 12.02.2017.)

Martin, Optimal Font Size for Web Pages (CHI 2016), http://pielot.org/2016/01/optimal-font-size-for-web-pages/ (Piekļuve: 13.02.2017.)

What’s the Difference Between Leading, Kerning and Tracking? 2016 https://creativemarket.com/blog/whats-the-difference-between-leading-kerning-and-tracking (Piekļuve: 3.02.2017.)

Soleimani, H., Mohammadi, E. The Effect of Text Typographical Features on Legibility, Comprehension, and Retrieval of EFL Learners, English Language Teaching; Vol. 5, No. 8; 2012

Idler, S., 8 Guidelines For Better Readability On The Web, 2012, http://blog.usabilla.com/8-guidelines-for-better-readability-on-the-web/ (Piekļuve: 12.03.2017.)

Nielsen, J., Readability Guidelines for Websites, 2002, https://www.nngroup.com/articles/let-users-control-font-size/ (Piekļuve: 12.03.2017.)

Nix, T., Skyrocketing Your Web Content’s Readability, http://nectafy.com/readability-guidelines/ (Piekļuve: 12.03.2017.)

Pappas, C., Typography In eLearning: 5 Key Tips For eLearning Professionals, 2015 https://elearningindustry.com/typography-in-elearning-5-key-tips-for-elearning-professionals (Piekļuve: 12.03.2017.)

Hall, R.H., Hanna, P. The impact of web page text-background colour combinations on readability, retention, aesthetics and behavioural intention, Behaviour & Information technology, May-June 2004, Vol.23, No3, 183-195

Rasheed, H., Eye Specialist, Saidu Medical College, Saidu.

Richardson, R.T., Drexler, L.T., Delparte, M.D., Color and Contrast in E-Learning Design: A Review of the Literature and Recommendations for Instructional Designers and Web Developers, MERLOT Journal of Online Learning and Teaching, Vol. 10, No. 4, December 2014

Hill, A., Scharff, L. V. Readability of screen displays with various foreground/ background color combinations, font styles, and font types,” Proceedings of the Eleventh National Conference on Undergraduate Research, II, 1997, 742-746

Harrison, J., Sensory Perception and Interaction Research Group, University of British Columbia

Scharff, L. V., Ahumada, A. J. (2005). Why is light text harder to read than dark text? [Abstract]. Journal of Vision, 5(8):812, 812a




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17770/etr2017vol2.2560

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.