Effect of Environmental Factors on Air Ion Concentration

Andris Skromulis, Juris Breidaks

Abstract


The paper discusses and analyzes the effect of environmental factors on ion concentrations in urban air. Statistically mathematical method was used to analyze the measurements of air ion concentration collected in a period of several months, with ion size ranging from 0.75 to 36.6 nm. As environmental factors related to air ions, the following chemical and physical parameters of the atmospheric air were analyzed: CO, NO, NO2, NOx, SO2, O3, PM10, PM2.5, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction. When analyzing data in this combination, there is often a problem of multicollinearity between air chemical and physical parameters. This paper addresses this problem by using the component regression. Regression equations were elaborated to understand the dependence of concentrations of various classes of positive and negative air ions on chemical and physical parameters of the air.


Keywords


air ions, air pollution, multicollinearity, multivariate regression, Principal Component Regression (PCR).

Full Text:

PDF

References


Noviks G., Skromulis A. Gaisa vides kvalitātes monitoringa pilnveidošanas iespēju analīze. In: Environment. Technology. Resources: Proceedings of the 7th International Scientific and Practical Conference. Volume 1. Rezekne Higher Education Institution, Rezekne, 2009, pp. 273-283.

Dolezalek H., Reiter R., Kröling P. Basic comments on the physics, occurrence in the atmosphere, and possible biological effects of air ions. Int. J. Biometeorol., No. 29.1985, pp. 207-242.

Tammet H. Air ions. In: CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 79th edition, No. 14, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London, Tokyo: CRC Press, 1998, pp. 32-34.

Hõrrak U., Salm J., Tammet H. Statistical characterization of air ion mobility spectra at Tahkuse Observatory: classification of air ions. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., No. 105. 2000, pp. 9291–9302.

Чижевский А. Л. Аэроионификация в народном хозяйстве. Москва: Госпланиздат, 1969, 185 с.

Rim Y. (1977) Psychological Test Performance of Different Personality Types on Sharav Days in Artifical air Ionisation. Int. J. Biometeor., vol. 21, number 4, pp 337 – 340.

Hari P., Kulmala M. Station for Measuring Ecosystem – Atmosphere Relations (SMEAR II) Boreal Environment Research 10. 2005, pp. 315-322.

Tanner, D.J., Eisele, F.L. Ions in oceanic and continental air masses. Journal of Geophysical Research 96. 1991.

Eisele, F.L., and D.J. Tanner, Measurement of the gas phase concentration of H2SO4 and methane sulfonic acid and estimates of H2SO4 production and loss in the atmosphere, J. Geophys. Res., 98, 1993, pp. 9001-9010.

Ziereis H., Arnold F. Gaseous ammonia and ammonium ions in the free troposphere. Nature 321. 1986, pp. 503 – 505.

Carr, T.W. (1984) Plasma Chromatograohy. Plenum, New York. 1984., p 259.

Eiceman, G.A., Karpas, Z. (1994) Ion Mobility Spectrometry. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 1994, p 288.

Hoppel, W.A. Measurement of the mobility distribution of tropospheric ions. Pageoph. 81. 1970, pp. 230-245.

Parts, T., Salm, J. The effect of pyridine and its homologues on mobility spectra of positive small air ions. Acta et Comm. Univ. Tartuensis 947. 1992, pp. 24-30.

Ying Li, A comparison study of principle component regression, partial least squares regression and ridge regression with application to FTIR data, Master thesis in statistics, Faculty of Social Sciences, Uppsala Universitet. Sweden, June 2010.

Jollife, I. T., 1986, Principal component analysis, Spring-Vlg,New-York.

Mevik, B.-H., Wehrens, R., Liland., K. H., pls: Partial Least Squares and Principal Component regression; R package version 2.4-3, 2013., http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages /pls/

Mevik, B.-H., Wehrens, R., The pls Package: Principal Component and Partial Least Squares Regression R. Journal of Statistical Software 18(2). 2007, pp.1-24.

Mevik, B.-H., Cederkvist, H. R. Mean Squared Error of Prediction (MSEP) Estimates for Principal Component Regression (PCR) and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR). Journal of Chemometrics, 18(9). 2004, pp. 422–429.

Mirme A., Tamm E., Mordas G., Vana M., Uin J., Mirme S., Bernotas T., Laakso L., Kirsikko A., Kulamala M. A wide-range multi-channel air ion spectrometer. Boreal. Env. Res. 12. 2007, pp.247 – 264.

Krueger A. P., Struble A. E., Yost M. G., Reed E. I. Electric fields, small ions and biological effects. Intern. Jour. Biomet., Vol. 22, No. 3. 1978., pp. 202-212.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17770/etr2015vol2.241

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.