TENTATIVE LEVELS OF POPS IN LITHUANIAN ENVIRONMENT

Per-Anders Bergqvist, Violeta Kauneliene, Aurelija Cicenaite, Ilona Jegorova, Jolita Katkevičiūte

Abstract


Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) are chemical substances that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate through the food web, and pose a risk of causing adverse effects to human health and the environment. The Stockholm Convention is a global treaty to protect human health and the environment from POPs. In implementing the Convention, Governments will take measures to eliminate or reduce the release of POPs into the environment. This study was done in order to evaluate tentative POPs levels in Lithuania.
Limited amount of PAHs and PCBs were analyzed in Šiauliai air, in two biggest Lithuanian rivers – Nemunas and Neris, and in one of the biggest waste landfill in Lapes. Sampling was done using semi permeable membrane devices (SPMDs). The same procedure of sampling and analyses was used to ensure data comparability. In general, POPs pollution levels were compared with results from other studies.


Keywords


POPs; PAHs; PCBs; SPMDs; environment; Stockholm Convention; air; water; landfill

Full Text:

PDF

References


Vallack, H. W., Bakker, D.J., Brandt, I., Brorström-Lunden,E., Brouwer, A., Bull, K.R., Gough, C., Guardans, R., Holoubek, I., McCutchheon, P., Mocarelli, P., Taalman, R.D.F.,. Controling persistent organi pollutants – what next? Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 6 (3), 1998. p.143-175.

Commission of the European Communities (2003.06.12) Regulation of the European Parliament and of the Council on persistent organic pollutants and amending Directives 79/117/EEC and 96/59/EC, Brussels.

http://www.pops.int/. Stockholm convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs). (Review 2004/12/22).

http://www.ec.gc.ca/international/multilat/stock_e.htm#sta. La Voie verte – The green Lane. Last update 2003/03/07. (Rewiev 2004/12/24)

Aderemi O. Ogunfowokan. Isolation and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface runoff and sediments, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 147, 2003. p. 245-261.

http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc202.htm#SubSectionNumber:7.1.1.Chemical Safety Information from Intergovernmental Organizations. (Review 2004/12/17).

Lohmann R., Corrigan B. P., Howsam M., Jones K. C., Ockenden W. A.. Further developments in the use of semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as passive air samplers for persistent organic pollutants: field application in a spatial survey of PCDD/Fs and PAHs. Environmental science technology, 35, 2001. p. 2576-2582.

Syed R.Qasim, W.Chiang Sanitary landfill leachate: Generation, Control and Treatment, 1994. ISBN No. 1- 56676-129-8.

Conell, Desley W. Basic concepts of environmental chemistry. 1997

Persistent Organic Pollutants. A Swedish View of an International Problem // Swedish Environmental Protection Agency.

Drew R. Luellen, Damian Shea. Semipermeable membrane devices accumulate conserved ratios of sterane and hopane petroleum biomarkers. Chemosphere, Vol. 53, 2003. p. 705-713.

J.N. Huckins, J.D. Petty, C.E. Orazio, J.A. Lebo, R.C. Clark, V.L. Gibson, W.R. Gala, K.R.Echols. Determination of uptake kinetics (sampling rates) by lipid containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water. . Environmental science and technology. 33, 1999, 3918-3923

www.exposmeter.com. Exposmeter sampling technologies. (Review 2004/12/17)

P.A. Bergqvist, B. Strandberg, R. Ekelund, C. Rappe, A. Granmo. Temporal monitoring of organochlorine compounds in the sea water by semipermeable membranes following a flooding episode in western Europe. Environmental science and technology. 32 (24), 1998, p. 3887-3892.

Wania, F., Mackay, D. Global fractionation and cold condensation of low volatility organochlorine compounds in polar regions Ambio 22 (1). 1993. p.10-18.

Wania, f., Haugen, J.E., Lei, Y.D., Mackay, D. temperature dependence of atmospheric concentrations of semi-volatile organic compounds. Environmental science and technology. 32. 1998. p. 1013-1021.

Breivik, K., Alcock, R., Li, Y.F., Bailey R.E., Fiedler H., Pacyna J.M. Primary sources of selected POPs: regional and global scale emission inventories. Environmental pollution. 128. 2004. p.3-16.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17770/etr2005vol1.2119

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.