IMPACT OF TERRORISM ON CIVIC SOCIETY: EUROPEAN UNION’S CASE STUDY

Jaroslaw Gryz

Abstract


Only countries possess effective tools – instruments of politics – that can counteract impact of terrorism on European Union’s civic society. The aim of the study is to develop patterns of thinking and cognition of reality in context of an individual assessment and collective action with violence as a source of change. Analysis indicated in the article show that the ease of radicalization combined with the view of reality forms the basis of the descripted phenomenon, giving it a specific, individual character in each European Union’s country. The outcome and as well as the outline of this study can be foundation for future studies on security policy of every individual European Union state, connected with other under the umbrella of European Commission and other common structures. An open question is, In which direction is the phenomenon of international terrorism in European Union’s states evolving and what does it encompass while changing the character of social reality? The clearly drawn criteria of change allows to present a selective approach. They show the complexity of problems connected with contemporary terrorism, particularly in fighting the phenomenon. Article concludes that without comprehensive actions to combat terrorism, conducted individually and in common European Union’s security policy this phenomenon may intensify and result in consequences that are easy to foresee.

Keywords


civic society; European Union; responsibility; terrorism; transformation

Full Text:

PDF

References


CHRISAFIS A. Michael Houellebecq: ‘Am I Islamophobic? Probably, yes’, The G2 Interview, Sunday 6 September 2015. STACK L., KARASZ P., How Belgium Became Home to Recent Terror Plots, The New York Times, March 23, 2016.

The European Union Counter – Terrorism Strategy, 14469/4/05 REV 4, Brussels, 30 November 2005, p. 3-17.

DWORKIN A. Europe’s New Counter – Terror Wars, European Council on Foreign Relations, Policy Brief, ECFR 192, October 2016.

CASTELLS M. The Network Society: From Knowledge to Policy, in: CASTELLS M., CARDOSO G. (ed.) (2005). The Network Society. From Knowledge to Policy, Center for Transatlantic Relations, Washington, p. 3-6.

MCCANTS W. (2015). The ISIS Apocalypse. The History, Strategy, and Doomsday Vision of the Islamic State, St. Martin's Press, New York, p. 145-159.

STERN J., BERGER J.M (2015). ISIS: The State of Terror, HarperCollins Publisher, New York, p. 199-218.

Spain. MSW 10 years after the attacks there is a risk of another attack.” Gazeta Wyborcza, wyborcza.pl, http://wyborcza.pl/1,91446,15599013,Hiszpania__MSW__10_lat_po_zamachach_istnieje_ryzyko.html#ixzz41YcympU5, accessed on 29.02.2017.

POP V., VERBERGT M. Islamic State Terror Cell Found Refuge in Brussels District. Molenbeek has come to symbolize Belgium’s failure to integrate its Muslim population, The Wall Street Journal 22.03.2016, http://www.wsj.com/articles/islamic-state-terror-cell-found-refuge-in-brussels-district-1458694455, accessed on 22.03.2017.

CRAGIN K (2007). Understanding Terrorist Ideology, Testimony presented before the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence on June 12, 2007, CT-283 June 2007, RAND Corporation. WRIGHT A. L. Terrorism, Ideology and Target Selection, Department of Politics Princeton University, March 5, 2013, http://www.princeton.edu/politics/about/file-repository/public/Wright_on_Terrorism.pdf, accessed on 15.03.2017.

MELO S. After bloody year, Charlie Hebdo blames religion, Politico 1/5/16, http://www.politico.eu/article/bloody-year-charlie-hebdo-blames-religion-anniversary-edition/, accessed on 1.03.2016.

MACKENZIE A., ZWOLSKI K. Conclusion – European Security, Terrorism and Intelligence: Assessing the Path of Development, in: KAUNERT C., LEONARD S. (eds.) (2013). European Security, Terrorism and Intelligence, Tackling New Security Challenges in Europe, Palgrave Macmillan, p. 229-243.

BELL S., HINDMOOR A. (2009). Rethinking Governance: The Centrality of the State in Modern Society, Cambridge University Press, p. 20-45.

BURKE J. How Belgium became a breeding ground for international terrorists. Until now, European security services largely ignored the growth of extremism in the Muslim neighbourhoods of Brussels, the guardian online 16 November 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/nov/16/how-belgium-became-breeding-ground-international-terrorists , accessed on 23.03.2016.

FUNK M., PARKES R. Refugees versus terrorists, European Union Institute for Security Studies (EUISS) January 6/2016.

CARTER J. A. (2007). Social inquiry: A pragmatist analysis of just war theory explanations of terrorism, Purdue University, p. 77.

SYMONS E-K. Cologne attacks: „This is sexual terrorism directed towards women”, Women in the World, 1.19.2016, http://nytlive.nytimes.com/womenintheworld/2016/01/19/cologne-attacks-this-is-sexual-terrorism-directed-towards-women/, accessed on 15.03.2016.

REVESZ R. Cologne New Year gang assaults: Mayor says women should have code of conduct to prevent future assault, Independent, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/europe/mayor-of-cologne-says-women-should-have-code-of-conduct-to-prevent-future-assault-a6798186.html, accessed on 15.03.2016.

JONES G., CHOPRA T. Anti-Islam movement PEGIDA stages protests across Europe, Reuters 6.2.2016, http://www.reuters.com/article/us-europe-migrants-protests-germany-idUSKCN0VF0P4, accessed on 15.03.2016.

TAYLOR J. Radical Islamic cleric declares BRITISH law is invalid in BRITAIN. RADICAL cleric Anjem Choudary sparked fury today by declaring he 'doesn't accept' that British law is valid in the UK, Espress, http://www.express.co.uk/news/uk/526538/Radical-Islamic-preacher-Anjem-Choudary-rejects-authority-British-law, accessed on 24.03.2016.

SCHLIEBS M. Radical Muslim trio preaching again on social media, The Australian 7 January 2016, http://www.theaustralian.com.au/in-depth/terror/radical-muslim-trio-preaching-again-on-social-media/news-story/1f7e87143a8c078d876be259a29ba124, accessed on 24.03.2016.

RABASA A., PETTYJOHN S. L., GHEZ J. J., BOUCEK CH. (2010). Deradicalizing Islamist Extremists, RAND Corporation, p. 11-26. HOEFT G. 'Soft' Approaches to Counter-Terrorism: An Exploration of the Benefits of Deradicalization Programs, Paper, Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism, Herzliyya, Spring 2015, p. 9.

RABASA A., PETTYJOHN S. L., GHEZ J. J., BOUCEK CH., Deradicalizing Islamist Extremists…, p. 27-28.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17770/bsm.v2i7.3488

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.