LEGAL ASPECTS OF THE REGIME OF CIVIL LIABILITY FOR NUCLEAR DAMAGE IN BULGARIA

Olga Borisova

Abstract


Raksts veltīts kodolenerģijas izmantošanas tiesiskā režīma un civiltiesiskās atbildības jautājumiem kodolpostījumu gadījumā. Vēsturiski analizēti civiltiesiskās atbildības par kodolkaitējumu starptautiskie noteikumi, kā arī izskatītas Vīnes konvencijas par civilatbildību kodolkaitējuma gadījumā un Parīzes konvencijas par trešās puses atbildību saistībā ar kodolenerģiju, piemērošanas iespējas nacionālajā līmenī. Analizēts kādi atbildības veidi un atbildības režīms būtu efektīvi iedzīvotāju aizsardzībai pret kodolkaitējumu Secināts, ka efektīva varētu būt kodolmateriālu pārvadāšanas apdrošināšana, kas jāveic specializētiem transportēšanas uzņēmumiem, jo šādā veidā apdrošinātājs uzņemas atbildību par iespējamo kaitējumu. Uzsvērta valsts atbildība par kodolkaitējumu, jo Saskaņā ar Bulgārijas tiesisko regulējumu, valdība nosaka personu, kura atbilstoši Vīnes konvencijai ir kodoliekārtas operators, kā arī valdība nosaka finanšu garantijas veidu un noteikumus. Piedāvāts pilnveidot atbildību gadījumos, ja vienā vietā atrodas vairāku operatoru iekārtas.

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References


The Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the field of Nuclear Energy of 29.07.1960 and the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage of 21.05.1963 establish many full and almost identical regimes of civil liability for nuclear damage. The additional agreement, signed on 31.01.1963 in Brussels City has the goal to envisage additional compensation through national and international funds in the cases when the compensation by dint of the above-mentioned Paris Convention is not sufficient to cover all cases and amounts of damage. The Convention on Supplementary Compensation for Nuclear Damage, which is based either on the above-stated Vienna Convention, or on the above-mentioned Paris Convention, or on a national legislation in strict conformity with the annex of a convention, envisages the same additional compensation through international public funds. The Unified Protocol of 16.11.1982 ascertains a connection between the above-mentioned Vienna Convention and Paris Convention with a vie to spread the advantages of the one convention also over the members of the other convention.

Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, ratified with a law of the National Assembly, passed on 27.07.1994 (promulgated in Official Gazette (OG), issue 64 dated 09.08.1994г) article 1, paragraph 1(а)

Also there in article 1, paragraph 1(с)

Stoiber, C., Baer, A., Pelzer, N., Tonhauser, W., Manuel de droit nucleaire, AIEA, Viene 2006, p.125

Stoiber, C., Baer, A., Pelzer, N., Tonhauser, W., Manuel de droit nucleaire, AIEA, Viene 2006, р.126

Reitsma, S. Insurance of Nuclear Risk. International Nuclear Law: History, Evolution and Outlook, OECD, р..398-399, ISSN 978-92-64-99143-9

Montjoie, M., 2011, Droit international et gestion des dechets radioactifs, Paris, L.G.D.J., Lextenso edition, p.129

Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, ratified with a law of the National Assembly, passed on 27.07.1994 (promulgated in Official Gazette (OG), issue 64 dated 09.08.1994г) article VII, item 1

Joint Protocol for the application of Vienna Convention and Paris Convention, ratified by the National Assembly with a law, passed on 27.07.1994, Promulgated in OG, issue 64 of year 1994. It has been in force for Bulgaria since 24.11.1994, please see article III

Regulation on the terms and procedure for the exemption of small quantities of a nuclear material from the application of the Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, adopted by dint of a Council of Ministers’ Decree №201 dated 4.08.2004, promulgated in OG issue 72 dated 17.08.2004.

Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria (promulgated in OG, issue 56 dated 13.07.1991, the latest amendment made on 18.12.2015.), please see article 18, paragraph 4

Safe Use of Nuclear Energy Act (promulgated in OG, issue 63 dated 28.06.2002, as its latest amendment was made on 20.02.2015)

Safe Use of Nuclear Energy Act (promulgated in OG, issue 63 dated 28.06.2002, as its latest amendment was made on 20.02.2015), please read article 14, paragraph 1 and paragraph 3

Safe Use of Nuclear Energy Act (promulgated in OG, issue 63 dated 28.06.2002, as its latest amendment was made on 20.02.2015), please read article 4, paragraph 1 and paragraph 2

Also therein, article I (l)

Also therein, article I (h)

Also therein, article I (а)

Also therein, article I (c)

Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, ratified with a law of the National Assembly, passed on 27.07.1994 (promulgated in Official Gazette (OG), issue 64 dated 09.08.1994) article I (k))

Cruz, F. Ferrer, S. Revision critica del estatuto de responsabilidad civil por daños nucleares en Chile, Revista chilena de derechо, vol.40 no.1 Santiago abr.2013, ISSN 0718-3437

Stoiber, C., Baer, A., Pelzer, N., Tonhauser, W., Manuel de droit nucleaire, AIEA, Viene 2006, р.132

Treaty between the Government of the Republic of Bulgaria, the Government of the Russian Federation and the Cabinet of the Ministers of Ukraine in the area of the safe transport of nuclear materials between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Bulgaria and across the territory of Ukraine (promulgated in OG, issue 83 dated 16.10.2006)

Treaty between the Government of the Republic of Bulgaria, the Government of the Russian Federation and the Cabinet of the Ministers of Ukraine in the area of the safe transport of nuclear materials between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Bulgaria and across the territory of Ukraine (promulgated in OG, issue 83 dated 16.10.2006), please read article 7 and article 8

Reitsma, S. Insurance of Nuclear Risk. International Nuclear Law: History, Evolution and Outlook, OECD, р.397 ISSN 978-92-64-99143-9

Safe Use of Nuclear Energy Act(promulgated in OG, issue 63 dated 28.06.2002г, the latest amendment made on 20.02.2015), please read article 128

Please, see the official announcement of the Council of Ministers dated 13.11.2013 on http://www.government.bg/cgi-bin/e-cms/vis/vis.pl?s=001&p=0228&n=5344&g=

Please, see the official announcement of the Council of Ministers dated 15.04.2015 on http://www.government.bg/cgi-bin/e-cms/vis/vis.pl?s=001&p=0228&n=6903&g=

On these legal grounds in article 132, paragraph 1 of the Safe Use of Nuclear Energy Act (promulgated in OG, issue 63 dated 28.06.2002), the operator’s liability for damage caused by every nuclear accident is limited to 96 mln BGN and is a bit more than the limit required by the Convention.

Safe Use of Nuclear Energy Act(promulgated in OG, issue 63 dated 28.06.2002г, the latest amendment made on 20.02.2015), please read article 132, paragraph 1

Also therein, article 132, paragraph 2

Vienna Convention on Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage, ratified with a law of the National Assembly, passed on 27.07.1994 (promulgated in Official Gazette (OG), issue 64 dated 09.08.1994) article II, item 3(a)

Stoiber, C., Baer, A., Pelzer, N., Tonhauser, W., Manuel de droit nucleaire, p.129, AIEA, Viene 2006




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17770/acj.v3i76.2855

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